Language: Abipon was a Guaicuruan
language once spoken in Argentina and Paraguay. It was morphologically complex and had SVO word order.
The Abipon language has not been spoken since the mid-1800's.
Names: The same language is referred to in Spanish as either Abipón or Callaga.
Since the tribe no longer exists as a distinct cultural entity, it is not known which name they preferred.
The Abipones also got the names Ecusgina and Quiabanaite from their Lengua and Macu neighbors,
and the Spanish called them and many other tribes of this region Frentones ("Big Foreheads") due to their
hairstyles which were shaved high in front. There were three Abipon Indian subgroups, known as
the Yaucaniga or Water People, the Riikahé or People of the Open Country, and the Nakaigetergehé or Forest
People. Another extinct indigenous group of Argentina, the Mepene, may have been speakers of the same language.
Other common spellings include Abipon, Abipona, Abispon, Abiponi, Abipone, Abiponian, Callagá,
Callagaic, Callagaes, Kalyaga, Callagaik, Acallagaec, Quiabanabaite, Yaaukanigá, Yaaucaniga, Yaukaniga, Jaaukanigá,
Rukahe, Rucahe, Nacaiguetergehé, Naquetagué, Kakaikétergehe, Nakaiketergehe, Mepone, Mapeni, and Mapenuss.