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Achumawi Language (Achomawi, Pit River Indians)
Language: Achumawi is a Palaihnihan language of Northern California, most
closely related to Atsugewi.
Some linguists consider these two languages part of the larger
Hokan language family.
Achumawi is a
It is highly polysynthetic
with very complex verbs and free word order.
Only a few elders of the Pit River Indian tribe speak the Achumawi language today,
but some Achumawi people are working to revive their language again.
The name Achumawi originally referred specifically to the dialect of the Fall River band (also
spelled Ajumaawi, Ajumawi, Ajúmmááwí, Azumawi, Achumawe, or Achomawi.) There were also eight
other bands that spoke different dialects of the same language: the Madesiwi, Ilmawi, Itsatawi,
Hammawi/Hamawi, Qosalektawi/Kosalektawi, Hewisedawi, Astariwawi, and Atwamsini bands. Today, however,
"Achumawi" is used as a general term to mean all varieties of this language and its speakers.
Pit River Indians (spelled "Pitt River Indians" in 19th-century records),
Palaihnih/Palaihnihan, and Palaiks/P'laikni are broader terms including
both Atsugewi and Achumawi people and languages. Kahi is a linguistic term which refers to the Achumawi, Atsugewi,
Karuk, and Shasta languages, which many linguists consider a subgroup of the Hokan language family.
Achumawi language samples and resources.
Achumawi Indians Culture and History
Information and links about the Achumawi tribe past and present.
Achumawi Indians Fact Sheet
Our answers to common questions about the lifestyle of Achumawi Indian people.
Introduction to Achumawi mythology.
Our Online Achumawi Materials
Our list of vocabulary words in the Achumawi language, with comparison to words in other Hokan languages.
Achumawi Pronunciation Guide:
How to pronounce Achumawi words.
Achumawi Animal Words:
Illustrated glossary of animal words in the Achumawi language.
Achumawi Body Parts:
Online and printable worksheets showing parts of the body in the Achumawi language.
Worksheet showing color words in the Achumawi language.
Worksheet showing how to count in the Achumawi language.
Worksheet with pictures of food words in the Achumawi language.
Achumawi Dictionaries and Language Books for Sale
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Flutes of Fire:
Interesting collection of essays about Achumawi and other California Indian languages.
Native American Language Dictionaries:
Achumawi and other American Indian dictionaries and language materials for sale.
Achumawi Language Lessons and Linguistic Descriptions
Pre-Contact California Tribal Territories:
Maps showing where in Northern California the Achomawi language is spoken.
Profile of the Achumawi language including a phonological inventory, orthography and a text.
Pit River Writing System Explanation:
Language learning video demonstrating the sounds of the Achumawi alphabet.
Reconstructing Achumawi and Atsugewi Aspects of Pit River Phonology:
Linguistics articles on the Palaihnihan languages of Northern California.
Brief article on the Achumawi language.
House of Languages: Achumawis
Information about Achumawi language usage.
Survey of California Indian Languages: Achumawi:
Profile of the Achumawi language from the University of California at Berkeley.
Achumawi Language Tree:
Theories about Achumawi's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
Achumawi Language Structures:
Achumawi linguistic profile and academic bibliography.
Hokan Comparative Vocabulary:
Early 20th-century wordlists of Shasta, Achomawi and Karok.
Achumawii Words of Life:
Bible passages translated into the Achumawi language.
Native American Words:
Translation services in Achumawi and other Indian languages.
Additional Resources, Links, and References
Endangered Languages Project: Achumawi:
Bibliography of Achumawi language resources.
Reference list of Achumawi language materials.
Encyclopedia articles on the Achumawi language.
Lengua Achumawi Lenguas Palaihnih:
Information on the Achumawi language in Spanish.
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