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Achumawi Language (Achomawi, Pit River Indians)

Language: Achumawi is a Palaihnihan language of Northern California, most closely related to Atsugewi. Some linguists consider these two languages part of the larger Hokan language family. Achumawi is a tone language. It is highly polysynthetic with very complex verbs and free word order. Only a few dozen elders of the Pit River Indian tribe speak the Achumawi language fluently today, but some Achumawi Indian people are working to revive their language again.

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Names: The name Achumawi originally referred specifically to the dialect of the Fall River band (also spelled Ajumaawi, Ajumawi, Ajmmw, Azumawi, Achumawe, or Achomawi.) There were also eight other bands that spoke different dialects of the same language: the Madesiwi, Ilmawi, Itsatawi, Hammawi/Hamawi, Qosalektawi/Kosalektawi, Hewisedawi, Astariwawi, and Atwamsini bands. Today, however, "Achumawi" is used as a general term to refer to all varieties of this language and its speakers. Pit River Indians (spelled "Pitt River Indians" in 19th-century records), Palaihnih/Palaihnihan, and Palaiks/P'laikni are broader terms including both Atsugewi and Achumawi people and languages. Kahi is a linguistic term referring to the Achumawi, Atsugewi, Karuk, and Shasta languages, which many linguists consider a subgroup of the Hokan language family.

Achumawi Language
Achumawi language samples and resources.

Achumawi Indians Culture and History
Information and links about the Achumawi tribe past and present.

Achumawi Indians Fact Sheet
Our answers to common questions about the lifestyle of Achumawi Indian people.

Achumawi Legends
Introduction to Achumawi mythology.

Achumawi Language Resources

Our Online Achumawi Materials

Achumawi Vocabulary:
    Our list of vocabulary words in the Achumawi language, with comparison to words in other Hokan languages.
Achumawi Pronunciation Guide:
    How to pronounce Achumawi words.
Achumawi Animal Words:
    Illustrated glossary of animal words in the Achumawi language.
Achumawi Body Parts:
    Online and printable worksheets showing parts of the body in the Achumawi language.
Achumawi Colors:
    Worksheet showing color words in the Achumawi language.
Achumawi Numbers:
    Worksheet showing how to count in the Achumawi language.
Achumawi Food:
    Worksheet with pictures of food words in the Achumawi language.

Achumawi Dictionaries, Audio Tapes and Language Resources

Achumawi Dictionary:
    Achumawi-English dictionary (out of print).
Flutes of Fire:
    Interesting collection of essays about Achumawi and other California Indian languages.
Native American Language Dictionaries:
    Achumawi and other American Indian dictionaries and language materials for sale.

Achumawi Language Lessons and Linguistic Descriptions

Reconstructing Achumawi and Atsugewi * Aspects of Pit River Phonology:
    Linguistics articles on the Palaihnihan languages.
House of Languages: Achumawi
     Information about Achumawi language usage.
Achomawi Language:
    Demographic information about the Achomawi tribe and their language from the Ethnologue of Languages.
*Survey of California Indian Languages: Achumawi:
    Profile of the Achumawi language from the University of California at Berkeley.
Achumawi Language Tree:
    Theories about Achumawi's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
Achumawi Language Structures:
    Achumawi linguistic profile and academic bibliography.
Native American Words:
    Translation services in Achumawi and other Indian languages.

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References, Links, and Additional Information

  Wikipedia: Achumawi:
  Encyclopedia articles on the Achumawi language.
  Lengua Achumawi * Lenguas Palaihnih:
  Information on the Achumawi language in Spanish.
  Achumawi Language:
  Achumawi links.
  Achumawi Tribe:
  Achumawi Indian books.

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