American Indian languages
American Indian culture
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Madeline Shay was a late Penobscot elder considered by many to have been the last fully fluent speaker of the
Penobscot language. However, there are other Penobscot elders still living today who did grow up speaking the language
to some extent, and the younger generation of Penobscots is now working on reviving their ancestral language.
Madeline Shay Resources
Here is a page of audio recordings made by Madeline Shay to help her people continue the language:
Madeline Shay recordings.
Here are links to our webpages about the Penobscot tribe and language:
Penobscot language learning
Northeastern Woodland culture area
Here are a few good books about the Penobscots:
Women of the Dawn
Twelve Thousand Years: American Indians of Maine
The Language of Basket Making
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