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Native Languages

Hokan Language Family

The Hokan languages are spoken in the southwestern and west coast US and in northwestern Mexico (Baja California and Sonora). The relationships between the different branches of the Hokan language family are tenuous and this grouping is considered hypothetical. Some linguists have proposed a distant relationship between the Hokan, Muskogean and Siouan languages.



The Hokan languages are generally considered to include:

  • Yuman Languages
  • Delta-Californian Languages
  • Cocopa
  • Kumiai (Diegueno)
  • River Yuman Languages
  • Maricopa
  • Mohave
  • Quechan (Yuma)
  • Upland Yuman Languages
  • Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai
  • Paipai (Akwa'ala)
  • Cochimi
  • Kiliwa
  • Esselen
  • Karok-Shasta Languages
  • Karok
  • Palaihnihan Languages
  • Achumawi
  • Atsugewi
  • Shasta
  • Chimariko
  • Yana
  • Pomo Languages
  • Western Pomo Languages
  • Central Pomo
  • Kashaya
  • Northern Pomo
  • Southern Pomo
  • Eastern Pomo
  • Southeastern Pomo
  • Northeastern Pomo
  • Salinan-Seri Languages
  • Chumash
  • Salinan
  • Seri
  • Tequistlatecan Languages
  • Lowland Chontal of Oaxaca
  • Sierra Chontal of Oaxaca
  • Washo
  • Native Languages

    Our Hokan Language Features

    Hokan Vocabulary:
         Words in various Hokan languages.

    Links to Other Hokan Language Resources

    Hokan Language Family:
         Ethnologue of Hokan languages.
    Hokan Languages:
        Overview of the Hokan Indian languages, their history and distribution.
    Hokan-Siouan Languages:
        Article on the proposed Hokan Siouan linguistic stock, linking the Hokan language family with Muskogean and Siouan.

    Hokan Language Materials Available Offline

    Hokan Studies:
         Compilation of linguistics papers on the Hokan language family.



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