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Gabrielino Language (Kizh, Tongva)

Language: Gabrielino, also known as Kizh or Tongva, was a Uto-Aztecan language of Southern California closely related to Serrano. There are no native speakers of Gabrielino remaining today. Language loss has been especially severe in California, where Indian communities were dispersed by slavery, massacres and other hardships. The Gabrielino language has not been spoken since the 1940's, although some tribal members hope to teach their children to speak it again. Gabrielino was an agglutinative language type with many suffixes, using predominantly SOV word order.

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Names: "Gabrielino" and "Gabrieleño" are the old Spanish names for the tribe, which derive from the Spanish placename San Gabriel Arcángel. "Tongva" was probably a Native placename or village name in the same vicinity. The people's endonym (the name they originally called themselves) may have been Kizh, a word in their own language meaning "home." There is disagreement among Gabrielino descendants about which of these names should be used now, with the Gabrieleño Band of Mission Indians preferring "Kizh" and the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe preferring "Tongva." Alternate spellings of these names include Gabrieliño, Gabrieleno, Tongvah, Tongvan, Kii'c, Kij, Kich, Kitc, or Kitzh.

Gabrielino Language
Gabrielino language samples and tools.

Gabrielino Tribe Culture and History
Information about the Gabrieleño Indians past and present.

Gabrielino Indians Fact Sheet
Our answers to common questions about the Gabrielinos.

Gabrielino Legends
Introduction to Gabrielino traditions and beliefs.

Gabrielino/Tongva Language Resources

Our Online Gabrielino Language Materials

Gabrielino Vocabulary:
    Our list of vocabulary words in the Gabrielino/Tongva language, with comparison to words in other Uto-Aztecan languages.
Gabrielino Pronunciation Guide:
    How to pronounce Gabrielino/Tongva words.
Gabrielino Animal Words:
    Picture glossary of animal words in the Gabrielino language.
Gabrielino Body Part Lesson:
    Online and printable worksheets showing parts of the body in Gabrielino.
Gabrielino Colors:
    Worksheet showing color words in Gabrielino.
Gabrielino Numbers:
    Worksheet showing how to count in the Gabrielino language.

Gabrielino Dictionaries, Audio Tapes and Language Resources
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Tovanger: A Gabrielino Word Book
     Small book of the Gabrielino/Tongva language.
The First Angelinos
     This good book on Gabrielino history and customs includes an English-Gabrielino dictionary.
American Indian Language Books:
    Gabrielino and other Native American dictionaries and language materials for sale.

Gabrielino Language Resources

Pre-Contact California Tribal Territories:
    Tribal map of the state of California, showing the location where Gabrielino was once spoken.
Los Angeles’ First Language:
    Interesting information on Tongva language revival, including audio files of phrases and a prayer.
Tongva Alphabet and Pronunciation:
    Phonological inventory of Tongva/Gabrielino, with example sentences.
Tongva Language Revival:
    Facebook page of a linguist who does Tongva language restoration projects.
Gabrielino-Fernandeno Papers:
    Archive of linguistics papers on Gabrielino.
*Survey of California Indian Languages: Gabrieleños:
    Profile of the Gabrieleño language from the University of California at Berkeley.
Gabrieliño Language Tree:
    Theories about Gabrelino's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
How To Revive A Language * One of a Kind * Reviving an extinct language:
    News stories about bringing the traditional Tongva/Kizh language back to life.

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Links, References, and Additional Information

Wikipedia: Tongva:
Encyclopedia articles on the Gabrieleno/Tongva language.
Lengua Gabrielino: * Los Gabrieleño-Tongvas:
Information on the Tongva language and people in Spanish.

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