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Kalapuya (Santiam, Luckiamute, Yoncalla)

The Kalapuyan languages are considered by most linguists to be part of the Penutian family of languages, possibly related most closely to Takelma. There were once three distinct Kalapuyan languages, Northern Kalapuya (Atfalati or Tualatin), Central Kalapuya (Santiam or Lakmayut), and Southern Kalapuya (Yoncalla). These three languages were closely related but could not be easily understood by speakers of one of the others, like Spanish, French and Italian. Unfortunately the distinction is moot now, as none of the Kalapuyan languages are still spoken. The Kalapuya tribes were devastated by smallpox, and the survivors were relocated onto the Siletz and Grande Ronde reservations in the 1800's along with many other Oregon tribes. Though their descendants still live there today, there are no more native speakers of any of the Grande Ronde languages.

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Kalapuya Language Resources

Chintimini May Be Garbled Version of Kalapuya Name
     Article on the etymology of a Kalapuya place name in Oregon.
Kalapuya Language
     Demographic information about Kalapuya from the Ethnologue of Languages.
Wikipedia: Kalapuyan:
    Encyclopedia article about the Kalapuyan languages.
Kalapuya Language Tree:
    Theories about Kalapuya's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
Kalapuya Language Structures:
    Kalapuya linguistic profile and academic bibliography.

Kalapuya Culture and History Links

Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde * Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians
     Official homepages of the intertribal reservations where the Kalapuya, along with other Oregon tribes, were resettled.
The Kalapuya of Clackamas County
     History of the Kalapuya people written by a Grand Ronde tribal member.
West Oregon Tribes * Tribes and Bands of Traditional Oregon:
    Map showing old Kalapuyan territories in Oregon.
Kalapuya Legends:
    Collection of Kalapuya Indian legends and folktales.
     Brief history of the Calapooya, Alfalati, Yamel, Luckiamute, Santiam, Chepenafa, and Yoncalla tribes from the University of Oregon.
Oregon Indian Tribes
     Fact sheet about the Kalapuya and other Oregon Indian tribes.
Four Directions: Kalapuya:
    Timeline and links about Kalapuya history.

Books for sale on the Kalapuyas
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Life in the Siuslaw Valley Prior to European Settlement
     Book on the history and culture of the Kalapuya, Yoncalla, Siuslaw and Lower Umpqua tribes.
A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest:
    Book on the history of the Northwest Coast tribes, including a section on the Kalapuya.

Additional Resources, Links, and References

  Wikipedia: Kalapuya:
  Encyclopedia articles on the Kalapuya people.
   Lengua Kalapuyan * Lenguas Kalapuya:
   Information about the Kalapuya language in Spanish.

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