Name: Lox Tribal affiliation:Maliseet, Passamaquoddy,
Micmac Alternate spellings: Laks, Loks, Luks, Lux, Lahks, Duks, Leux Also known as: Keekwajoo, Gigwadju, Keehcajoo, Wolverine, Badger, the Indian Devil, Skicinuwi-Wahant, W'skidcinwi Wahant Pronunciation: Rhymes with "blokes" in Maliseet, "blocks" in Passamaquoddy, or "dukes" in Mi'kmaq.
Keekwajoo is pronounced kee-kwah-joo. Type:Wolverine Related figures:Carcajou, Lusifee
Lox is a malevolent wolverine spirit of the northern Wabanaki tribes. Among the Mi'kmaq, Lox is
sometimes also known as Keekwajoo (or Ki'kwaju, Gigwa'aju, Kwi'kwa'ju, Kekwajoo, Keekwahjoo, etc,)
which comes from the Mi'kmaq word for "wolverine." (It is mistranslated as "Badger" in some older literature,
but this is a clear error-- badgers do not live in Wabanaki territory, and Ki'kwaju definitely refers to a wolverine.
The French word for wolverine, carcajou, was even borrowed from this Mi'kmaq word.)
Skicinuwi-Wahant and W'skidcinwi Wahant are Maliseet-Passamaquoddy translations of
"Indian Devil," which was a common name for Lox among English speakers.
Lox usually demonstrates inappropriate social behavior like gluttony, rudeness,
impatience, and a bad temper, but in some stories he also plays the role of a deadly
monster for humans to beware of. After the introduction of Christianity to the
Wabanaki tribes, Lox became identified with Satan, and some fusion French-Indian
stories have been recorded in which Lox tries to steal people's souls.
Recommended Books of Related Native American Legends
Old collection of legends about Lox and other mythical Passamaquoddy characters.
Giants of the Dawnland:
A good collection of Wabanaki legends told by a Penobscot Indian author.
On the Trail of Elder Brother:
Another good book of traditional Wabanaki stories, told by a Mi'kmaq author and illustrator.
Excellent anthology of stories, songs, and oral history from the Mi'kmaq and other Algonquian tribes.