Native American Languages
Native American Tribes
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Native Languages of the Americas: Maliseet
(Malecite, Malecites, Malisit)
Language: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy is an Algonquian language
with two major dialects: Maliseet (or Malécite), spoken mostly in New Brunswick, and Passamaquoddy (or Peskotomuhkati),
spoken mostly in Maine. There are 1500 speakers of both dialects combined, but most Maliseet speakers are older people, so
the language is in danger unless language revival efforts can successfully restore
its use among Maliseet children.
People: The Maliseet tribe belonged to the loose confederation of eastern American Indians known as the
Wabanaki Alliance, together with the
Micmac, and Abenaki Indians.
The Maliseet live primarily in Canada, especially New Brunswick, with one band across the border in Maine (the US granted official recognition to
the Maine tribe in 1980.) Older literature sometimes refers to them as "St. John's Indians," though
they never used that term themselves. The Maliseet's own name for themselves is Wolastoqiyik
(Maliseet is a Micmac word for someone who can't talk very well,) but today they are usually known as
Maliseets or Malecites.
History: The Maliseet and Passamaquoddy people were
closely related neighbors who shared a common language. The French called both the Passamaquoddy and Maliseet tribes by the same
French name, Etchemin, but they have always considered themselves politically independent. Europeans were frequently confused by
the Native American tribes of the east coast, who were numerous, small, and frequently lived together, yet claimed to be separate nations.
This is primarily because all of these tribes had been much larger and lived independently of one another before smallpox and other European
diseases decimated their populations. The Maliseet and Passamaquoddy, near relatives and
long-time allies who spoke dialects of the same language, banded together against European and
Iroquois aggression with their neighbors the
and Micmacs. The resulting
Wabanaki Confederacy was no more than a loose alliance, however, and
neither the Passamaquoddy nor the Maliseet nation ever gave up their sovereignty.
Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Resources
Maliseet language samples, articles, and indexed links.
Maliseet Culture and History Directory
Related links about the Maliseet people past and present.
Maliseet Indians Fact Sheet
Our answers to frequently asked questions about the Maliseets, their language and culture.
As a complement to our Maliseet language information, we would like to share our
collection of indexed links about the Maliseet people and various aspects of their society. This website emphasizes
Native Americans as living people with a present and a future as well as a past. Maliseet history is interesting and
important, but the Maliseet are still here today, too, and we try to feature modern writers as well as traditional
folklore, contemporary art as well as museum pieces, and the issues and struggles of today as well as the tragedies
of yesterday. Suggestions for new links are always welcome.
Maliseet Tribal Websites
Maliseet Tobique Reservation The Maliseet Nation at Tobique:
The Tobique First Nation of New Brunswick.
Woodstock First Nation:
Another Maliseet First Nation of New Brunswick.
Malecites of Viger:
Government profile of the Malecite First Nation of Quebec.
Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians:
The Maliseet tribe of Maine.
Maliseet Community Websites
Union of New Brunswick Indians:
Organization serving Micmac and Maliseet First Nations.
St. John River Valley Tribal Council:
Advising Micmac and Maliseet First Nations in New Brunswick.
Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nations Chiefs:
Services, education and outreach for Micmac, Passamaquoddy and Maliseet First Nations in Canada.
Aboriginal Studies Centre at the University of New Brunswick, specializing in Micmac and Maliseet cultural scholarship.
First Peoples: Malecites:
Information about the Malecite Indians of Quebec.
Maintaining the integrity and way of life of the Wabanaki Nations.
Aroostook County's Tribal Chiefs:
Interview with Brenda Commander and Rick Getchell, leaders of the Micmac and Maliseet tribes of Maine.
Kenneth D. Paul Native Herbalist:
Personal pages of individual Maliseet people.
Maps of Maliseet Lands
Native Americans of New England:
Map showing the location of early Malecite and New England Indian territory.
First Nations Map: Location of Amerindian Communities:
Maps of the Maliseet First Nations of Quebec.
Maine Native American Culture:
Historical maps and timeline for the Maliseets and other Native Americans of Maine.
Maine Indian Maps:
Tribal map showing the original territory of the Maliseet Indians and their neighbors.
Maliseet Lifestyle and Tradition
Micmac and Maliseet: First Nations of the Maritimes:
Essays about the native people of New Brunswick.
History of the Maliseet people in Canada.
Quebec History: Malecite Indians:
Anthropology text on the Maliseet people.
Algonquians of the Eastern Woodlands:
Ethnography of the Maliseet and other Eastern Canadian tribes.
Quebec First Nations: Malécite:
The semi-no mad ic lifestyle of the Maliseet Indians.
Maliseet culture and traditions in Quebec.
Canoeing Cultures: Maliseet:
Abenaki and Maliseet canoe-building and traditional culture.
Micmac and Maliseet Powwows:
Mi'kmaq and Maliseet dances, songs, drums, and mawiomi (powwow).
Fishing renaissance among the Malecites of Quebec.
Nicholas Smith Maliseet Collection:
Collection of Maliseet photographs by a Maine historian.
Maliseet Corn Soup Recipe Mint Leaf Tea:
Biography of a Maliseet entrepeneur.
Wabanaki License Plate:
Tribal license plate issued to Wabanaki people in Maine.
Maliseet Artifacts and Cultural Objects
Maliseet Artifacts Aboriginal Heritage: Maliseet Snowshoes, A Gift From Gluskabe:
Pictures of Maliseet baskets, jewelry, tools, snowshoes, pipes, and cradleboards.
Wampum Wampum History:
Wampum and its importance to traditional Maliseet life.
Maliseet Clothing Maliseet Peaked Cap Native Clothing Styles Beaded Headbands Native Hair:
Pictures and descriptions of traditional Maliseet and other Native American dress.
Maliseet Games Maliseet Doll Malécite Doll Maliseet Dice Game:
Malécite Dice Game Waltes: Maliseet Moose Call:
Maliseet Indian games, dolls, toys, and musical instruments.
Maliseet Religion and Myth
Koluskap Stories and other Maliseet Legends:
Collection of Maliseet Indian legends and folktales.
Kluskap Tales from the Malecite Miscellaneous Malecite Tales Micmac/Maliseet Storytelling:
Mythology of the Maliseets.
Seeking Native American Spirituality: Read This First! Micmac and Maliseet Spirituality:
Traditional Micmac and Maliseet religion/spirituality.
Maliseet Literature and Arts
Maliseet writers, their lives and work.
Craftwork of the Maritimes:
Overview of Micmac and Maliseet traditional artwork.
Maine Native American Basketmaking Maine Indian Baskets:
Maliseet and other Maine Indian splint basketry.
Beadwork of the Maliseets and other Northeast American Indians.
Micmac Quillboxes Porcupine Quill Decoration on Birch Bark Porcupine Quill Embroidery:
Quill embroidery of the Maliseet and other Wabanaki Indians.
Edward Ned Bear Masks of Ned Bear:
Woodcarvings by a Maliseet artist.
Dozay's Native Art Gallery Dozay:
Paintings of contemporary Maliseet artist Dozay (Arlene Christmas).
Rocky Paul Wiseman:
Music by a Fredericton Maliseet singer.
Native American Crafts:
Information, photographs and links about Maliseet and other native art.
Maliseet Politics, Issues, and News
Wabanaki Legal News:
Legal information, news and support for the American Indians of Maine.
Micmac Maliseet Nation News:
Information about the newspaper here, but the articles are not available online.
Protecting Maine Rivers River Summit at Indian Island Tribal Stewardship:
Maliseet and other Maine Indian efforts to protect their environment from dioxin and mercury pollution.
The Marshall Judgement Native Rights Mikmaq and Maliseet Indian Nations Attacked:
Burnt Church Fishery Ma rshall v. Canada:
The Marshall decision and the struggle for Micmac and Maliseet indigenous treaty rights in Canada.
Possible Ancient Native Burial Site Found:
Opinions about the excavation of an ancient Maliseet archaeological site in New Brunswick.
Native American Human Remains Important Change in Maine Law :
Repatriation of Maliseet and other American Indian human remains in Maine.
Maine House Bans the Word 'Squaw' The "Squaw" Word Squaw:
Bill to Ban 'Squaw' from Place Names Northeast Wigwam: Squaw Names Hurtful Words:
The fight by Maine Indians to rename landmarks with the word squaw in them.
Maliseets Get Their Day in Court Child Welfare and Race:
Articles about the Maliseet struggle in Maine to win control over their own child welfare system.
Eagle Feathers Denied at Border:
Clashes between US customs officials, Micmac and Maliseet Indians.
The Wabanaki Challenge:
Cross-border Passamaquoddy and Maliseet relations and legal issues.
Sandra Lovelace Human Rights Committee Decision Native Women Honoured for Human Rights Fight:
The successful fight of Malecite and other Canadian Indian women to regain their official status.
A National Disgrace:
Editorial addressing problems facing Micmac and Maliseet natives of New Brunswick.
Tribal history of the Maliseet and other Wabanaki peoples.
Woodstock First Nation History:
History of the Woodstock Maliseet First Nation.
Maine Timeline of Native American Culture The Wabanaki Indian Collection Ready to Tell Overdue Story:
People of the Dawn People of the Dawnland:
Maliseet and other Maine Indian history.
Quebec History: Malecite Indians: Origin of the Maliseet
Early ethnographies of the Malecites.
The Wabanaki Confederacy:
Links about Wabanaki history.
History of the 17th-century Wabanaki war.
Compensation for Residential School Survivors Shube nh acadie Indian Residential School:
Indian Residential Schools
Out of the Depths Aboriginal Healing Foundation Residential Schools:
Institutional Child Abuse in Canada Aboriginal Peoples and Residential Schools:
History of Shubenacadie and other Indian boarding schools of Canada, and the abuses Indian children suffered there.
Wolastoqiyik - Portrait of A People:
Collection of historic Malecite photographs.
Maritimes Treaties Treaty of 1749:
18th century treaties between the English and the Maliseet ("St. John Indians").
Four Directions: Maliseet:
Timeline and links about Maliseet history.
Online lookup of Maliseet and other Indian records through the Archives genealogy service.
Genealogy Documents On-Line:
Malecite and other Wabanaki peoples' census rolls and genealogical resources.
Maliseet & Micmac Vital Statistics:
Database of Micmac and Maliseet demographics from New Brunswick church records.
Maliseet Tribal History:
Genealogy and history of the Maliseet of Woodstock First Nation.
Maine Native American Genealogy:
Information, links, and messageboards for Maliseets and other Maine Indians.
Provincial Archives of New Brunswick:
Publicly available NB documents including Micmac and Maliseet genealogical records.
Native American Nations: Maliseet:
Message board for people of Maliseet descent.
American Indian Genealogy:
Direction for those seeking Maliseet and other American Indian ancestors.
Books for sale on the Maliseet
English and Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Dictionary:
Mi'kmaq and Maliseet Cultural and Ancestral Material:
Photographic exhibit of Maliseet art and artifacts from the Canadian Museum of Civilization.
Tales From Maliseet Country:
Maliseet legends and folktales presented both in the Native language and in English.
Twelve Thousand Years:
Reference book on the Malecites and other American Indians of Maine.
Enough is Enough: Aboriginal Women Speak Out:
Profiles of Maliseet women and their views on Canadian aboriginal issues.
Defying Maliseet Language Death:
Interesting book about the relationship between Maliseet language and culture, by a Native linguist.
Uncommon Threads: Wabanaki Textiles, Clothing, and Costume:
Photo-essay on Maliseet and other Wabanaki textile arts from the Maine State Museum.
Evolving list of books about Native Americans in general.
Links, References, and Additional Information
Malécites Malecites Les Malécites Les Amérindiens Malécites La Nation Malécite Les Malécites:
Information about the Maliseet Indian Nation in French.
Maliseet Malecite Indians Malecites:
Encyclopedia articles about the Maliseet Indians.
Maliseet Indians Native Americans: Maliseet: Maliseet Tribe:
Malecite Indian links pages.
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