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Twana Language (Skokomish)

Twana was a Salishan language of Washington state. The last native speaker of Twana died in 1980, but other elders remember something of the language and some Skokomish people today are working to revive their language again.

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Twana Language Resources

Twana Vocabulary
     Our list of vocabulary words in Twana, with comparison to words in other Salishan languages.
Bruce Miller
     Biography of a Skokomish man working to revive the Twana language.
     Demographic information about the Twana/Skokomish language from the Ethnologue of Languages.
Twana Language Tree * Skokomish Tree * Quilcene Tree:
    Theories about Twana's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
Twana Language Structures:
    Twana linguistic profile and academic bibliography.
Pacific Northwest Language Domains:
     Language map of Twana and other Northwest Coast languages of Washington, Oregon and California.
*Coast Salish Comparative Vocabulary:
    Early 20th-century wordlists of Twana and other Salishan languages.

Twana/Skokomish Culture and History Links

Skokomish Tribal Nation
     Official homepage of the Skokomish tribe.
Coast Salish Villages of Puget Sound:
     Detailed maps of the Indian tribes and bands of Puget Sound in the early 1800's, including the Skokomish.
Culture and History of the Skokomish Tribe
     Illustrated website of Twana Indian history and art.
The Twana:
     Curtis' early 20th-century ethnography of the Quinault and Twana Indians.
Twana Indians
     Article on Twana history and culture.
Twana Legends:
    Collection of Twana mythology and traditional stories.
Skokomish Tribe
     Wikipedia article on the Skokomish Indians.
Skokomish Tribe Legend
     Origin story of the Skokomish people.
Canoeing Cultures: Coast Salish:
    Twana and other Coast Salish canoe-building and traditional culture.
Skok Salmon Cheeks:
    Traditional Skokomish recipe.
Four Directions: Skokomish:
    Timeline and links about Skokomish history.

Books for sale on the Twanas
Our organization earns a commission from any book bought through these links

The Structure of Twana Culture
     Book for sale on the history and culture of the Twana Indian tribe.
How Daylight Came to Be: * Why Bluejay Hops: * The Time the Whale Came to Jackson's Bay: * The Man Who Loved Shell Money:
     Books of Skokomish Indian legends.
A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest:
    Book on the history of the Northwest Coast tribes, including sections on the Twana and Skokomish.

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Links, References, and Additional Information

   Lengua Twana * Los Twana:
   Information about the Twana language and people in Spanish.
  Les frontières ethniques du Puget Sound * Salish de la côte * Famille des langues salish:
  Information about the Twana tribe and other Puget Sound Salish people in French.

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