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Washo (Washoe) Language

Washo is considered by some linguists to be part of the Hokan family of languages, distantly related to a number of other California languages few of which have been spoken in decades. Language loss in California and Nevada has been especially severe--the legacy of the Gold Rush days, in which massacres and Indian slavery, while technically illegal, were not actively discouraged. The Washo language is only spoken today by a handful of elders, but some young Washoes are working to keep their ancestral language alive.

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Washo Language
Washo language samples and resources.

Washo Culture and History
Information and links about the Washo tribe past and present.

Washo Indian Legends
Introduction to the mythology of the Washo Indians.

Washo Language Resources

Our Online Washo Materials

Washo Vocabulary
     Our list of vocabulary words in the Washo language, with comparison to words in other Hokan languages.

Washo Language Lessons and Linguistic Descriptions

Linguistic Families of Northern California * Pre-Contact California Tribal Territories:
    Maps showing where in California the Washoe language is spoken.
Washo Indian Language * Washo Phonology * Washo Grammar:
    Scanned-in Washo language materials from the Rosetta Project.
Washo Documentation and Revitalization Project
     Homepage of a Washo language preservation organization.
House of Languages: Washo:
    Information about Washo language usage.
     Demographic information about the Washo language from the Ethnologue of Languages.
*Survey of California Indian Languages: Washo:
    Profile of the Washo language from the University of California at Berkeley.
Washo Language Tree:
    Theories about Washo's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
Washoe Language Structures:
    Washo linguistic profile and academic bibliography.
*Washo Vocabulary:
    Early 20th-century wordlists of Washo.

Washo Dictionaries, Audio Tapes and Language Resources
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A Grammar of the Washo Language
     Washo linguistics book (out of print).

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Links, References, and Additional Information

Washoe Language * Wikipedia: Washo:
Encyclopedia articles on the Washoe language.
Lengua Washo:
Information on the Washo language in Spanish.
Washo links.
Washo Tribe:
Washo Indian books.

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