Native Indian languages
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Washo (Washoe) Language
Washo is considered by some linguists to be part of the Hokan family
of languages, distantly related to a number of other California languages few of which have been spoken in decades.
Language loss in California and Nevada has been especially severe--the legacy of the Gold Rush days, in which massacres
and Indian slavery, while technically illegal, were not actively discouraged. The Washo language is only spoken today
by a handful of elders, but some young Washoes are working to keep their ancestral language alive.
Washo language samples and resources.
Washo Culture and History
Information and links about the Washo tribe past and present.
Washo Indian Legends
Introduction to the mythology of the Washo Indians.
Our Online Washo Materials
Our list of vocabulary words in the Washo language, with comparison to words in other Hokan languages.
Washo Language Lessons and Linguistic Descriptions
Linguistic Families of Northern California Pre-Contact California Tribal Territories:
Maps showing where in California the Washoe language is spoken.
Washo Indian Language Washo Phonology Washo Grammar:
Scanned-in Washo language materials from the Rosetta Project.
Washo Documentation and Revitalization Project
Homepage of a Washo language preservation organization.
House of Languages: Washo:
Information about Washo language usage.
Demographic information about the Washo language from the Ethnologue of Languages.
Survey of California Indian Languages: Washo:
Profile of the Washo language from the University of California at Berkeley.
Washo Language Tree:
Theories about Washo's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
Washoe Language Structures:
Washo linguistic profile and academic bibliography.
Early 20th-century wordlists of Washo.
Washo Dictionaries, Audio Tapes and Language Resources
A Grammar of the Washo Language
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Washo linguistics book (out of print).
Links, References, and Additional Information
Washoe Language Wikipedia: Washo:
Encyclopedia articles on the Washoe language.
Information on the Washo language in Spanish.
Washo Indian books.
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