American Indian languages
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Clatskanie (Kwalhioqua, Tlatskanie, Klaatshan)
Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie was an Athabascan language once spoken by
the Willapa, Suwal, and Clatskanie tribes of Oregon and Washington state. These tribes were decimated by smallpox in the early 1800's,
and the survivors merged into neighboring tribes. Though there are still Clatskanie and Kwahlioqua descendents among other Indian tribes
of northwest Oregon, they have not survived as distinct nations, and the language has not been spoken since the 1930's.
Only a few remnants of it remain, and they can be hard to find. If you're looking for information on Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie,
your only reliable source is likely to be Alexander Anderson's vocabularies from the 1850's, usually filed under "Klatskanai" or "Tah-cully."
Try a university library.
Our list of vocabulary words in the Willapa dialect of Clatskanie, with comparison to words in other Athabaskan languages.
Pacific Northwest Language Domains:
Language map of Clatskanie and other Northwest Coast languages of Washington, Oregon and California.
Information about the Clatskanie/Kwalhioqua language in Spanish.
Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai Language Tree:
Theories about Clatskanie's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
West Coast Athabaskans:
Brief history of the Kwalhioqua, Clatskanie, and other Oregon Athabascan tribes from the University of Oregon.
Profile of the tribe with a map and language chart.
Oregon Indian Tribes:
Fact sheet about the Clatskanies and other Oregon Indian tribes.
Early colonial history of the Oregon town, including the first encounters with Chief Chewan and the Tlatskanai.
Curtis' early 20th-century ethnography of the Willapa Clatskanie Indians.
Brief article on Clatskanie interactions with the Lewis and Clark expedition.
A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest:
Book on the history of the Northwest Coast tribes, including a section on the Clatskanie.
Links, References, and Additional Information
Encyclopedia articles on the Athabaskan languages, including Tlatskanai-Kwalhioqua.
Four Directions: Clatskanie:
Timeline and links about Clatskanie history.
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