American Indian languages
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Tiwanaku Tribe (Tiahuanaco)
Tiwanaku was the name of one of the major pre-Columbian civilizations of the southern Andes, spanning territory in Peru, Bolivia, and
Chile. It is also the name of an archaeological site in Bolivia where one of their main cities was located.
The Tiwanaku people are believed to have been speakers of the old Puquina
language, which is now extinct. The Tiwanaku civilization was no longer in existence by the time of European colonization.
Archaeologists believe the Tiwanaku empire dissolved around 1000 AD, probably due to drought and famine devastating their large
population centers. Tiwanaku survivors probably dispersed into other Andean communities, and there are likely people of Tiwanaku
descent among the Aymara and
Quechua people today.
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Names: The origin of the name Tiwanaku is uncertain. It was probably a name for the people that has been passed down
from a language that is no longer spoken. It is also spelled other ways such as Tiahuanaco, Tiahuanacu, Tihuanacu, and Tihuanacu.
The Tiwanaku city site is also known as Taypikala, which means "central stone" in the Aymara language.
Tiwanaku: Pre-Incan Civilization in the Andes:
Good overview of Tiwanaku history and archaeology.
Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture:
Photographs and information about the ruins of Tiwanaku from the UNESCO World Heritage site.
Tiwanaku: Revealing Ancient Bolivia:
Articles about the Akapana pyramid, Pumapunku temple, and other archaeological discoveries of Tiwanaku.
Pre-Inca Cultures of the Andes:
Map showing the territory of the ancient Wari and Tiwanaku civilizations.
The Changing Nature of Tiwanaku Religion and the Rise of an Andean State:
Research paper about the rituals and religious traditions of the Tiwanaku people.
Ancient Agriculture at Tiwanaku:
Archaeological information about the farming and irrigation techniques of the Tiwanaku.
Tiahuanaco Creation Myth:
A traditional Inca legend from the Tiahuanacos.
Wikipedia: Tiwanaku empire:
Encyclopedia article about the Tiwanaku civilization.
Tiwanaku Books for Sale Online
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A good anthopology book on the Tiwanaku civilization.
Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca:
An interesting book about Tiwanaku history and art, with many photographs.
The Stones of Tiahuanaco: A Study of Architecture and Construction:
Archaeology book about the ancient city of Tiahuanaco.
Links, References, and Additional Information
Tiwanaku, antigua cultura andina Cultura Tiwanaku Tiwanaku: el Puquina, los Incas y su Idioma Secreto Tiahuanaco-Huari Tiahuanaco:
Information about Tiwanaku in Spanish.
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