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Sahaptin Noun Dictionary (Yakama Dialect)

This dictionary of Yakama Sahaptin nouns was sent to us by Teresa Ana-hoo-ey Kurtzhall with the permission of Virginia Beavert, who put together the 1975 Sahaptin Yakama Dialect Practical Dictionary that these nouns were extracted from. Unfortunately it is now out of print and I do not know where copies of the full dictionary can be obtained (other than rare and used book stores).

Using the Sahaptin Yakama Dialect

The English alphabet and writing system does not follow the alphabetic principal with consistency, example are the words: bough, cough, tough, through, etc., these stand for four different vowel and consonate sounds. This has been avoided with the Sahaptin Yakama Dialect.

There are many dialects within the Sahaptin language, for instance you may hear some people say they speak Yakama, Umatilla or Warm Springs. The Nez Perce, Wasco & Wishram, etc., language is closely related, but not the same dialect.

In the English alphabet there are twenty-six letters for use in the Yakama alphabet, some stand for sounds not found in Yakama & vice-versa. An example would be the letters b, d, f, g, r, and z. Other ways in determining pronunciation are the fact that there are hard and soft sounds within the Yakama dialect, examples would be an apostrophe after the letter(s) ch' or k', this brings out a hard pronunciation, this also applies to vowels which have an apostrophe above them. Vowels may have either short or long sounds, as a rule, the second vowel in a word takes on a longer pronunciation. A stress mark is placed above the most prominent or strongest vowel or word, many times changing the meaning, sometimes slightly, sometimes drastically, examples: Pák'inushana = “He saw him”, and Pak'ínushana = “They saw him”. ákak = “Canadian goose”, and akák = “your maternal Uncle”.

There are several ways in which these letters are used on the tongue or throat, (front, middle, back). Some pronunciations are hard, soft, or not heard at all. Examples are the different “k” sounds, some pronounced further back in the rear of the mouth than the English “k”, or from the front, either way, they may be pronounced hard or soft, depending on where they are in the word. Example: k'úsi = “horse”, this word begins with a hard frontal “k” sound, while the word k'ayík = “colt, calf, elk calf ”, begins with a hard back “k” sound. Other “k” like sounds are pronounced with rounded lips, example: Kwíkwt = “whistling”.

There are several “h” like sounds within the Yakama dialect. One is the plain “aitch”, used as the English word “hop”. Other “h” like sounds are not found in the English language, instead the letter “x” has been used to represent them, because they are similar to the sound represented by the “x” in classical Greek and other European languages. The most common “x” sounds are comes from the back, a harsh or rough sound, example: xátxat = “mallard duck”. The front “x” has a smoother, softer sound and is not frequently used in the Yakama dialect, but will be found at the end of words, example: iwíix = “thin”.

One may not catch how to speak the dialect exactly as intended, this is where linguistics teaching comes in to play. Virginia Beavert has completed the new Yakama Practicle Dictionary which includes a CD so you can hear the words as well as read them.

Sahaptin Language Yakama Dialect: Nouns

abdomen - nawát
ability - nikw'níkw
aboriginal - wiyá'uylá (sng), uytłámań miimáma (plu)
above - xwíimi (overhead)
abundance - pch'í
abuse - páyu
abyss - howláak
achieve or attain - náwnak'i
acorn - wawachí
affluence - pch'í
afternoon - páchway
Alder tree - Ixa or Psúni
Alpine - Niníkaash
aluminum - plashmí
Angel - Wáptasyi
anger - sxíxt
animal - kákya
ankle - k'uxsk'úxs
anklet - túk'iksh (anklet of bells or hooves)
ant - skilwisá or kliwisá or tamshúy
antelope - chatwíll or wáwataw
Appaloosa - máamin
apple - ápils
armband - shápwinayaaksh
armpit - wáxalam
arrow - kayáasy
ashes - láp'ulp'ul or látxtx
attack - ( aggression ) wátkw'na
attack ( fight ) - tiwi
attempt - ináwit
attention – tmáak (respect, courtesy)
attentive person – pamts'ixwałá
attitude - pxwí
autumn - tiyám or tiyámiki
awl - nch'iistí
axe - wats'úkt
back of one's knee – k'líyaas
backbone of a salmon – síwi
badger – wíla or shíki
bag or basket – wápaas or wápas (worn around waist while digging roots or picking berries).
bag - ltáy'ltay (hemp shoulder bag)
bait – yatsímakt
ball - shp'áw or k'píit
bandana - chátl'umxsh
barb – tanu (on prongs of harpoon)
barefoot - lk'amnút
bark of a tree – psá
barley – páali
barrel - t'amúlksh
barrel race - t'amúlksh pawilawíixt
baseball bat – shpáw wat'atpamá
baseball glove, mitt - shp'awitpamá lík'im
basket – wáxwintash (worn around waist for berries).
basket – ánpsh (large basket for storing berries).
basket – xláam (big basket made of Cedar root).
basket – wápaas or wáxintash (small basket made of Cedar root).
basket trap – sapáxwliis (basket fish trap).
bastard – yálmilk or miyáakin
bat - lach'at lách'at (mammel)
bathroom – attpamá ; atáwaas, toilet.
bay horse - luch'á
bay, dark horse – takawáakusn
bead - k'pít
beads - ts'imts'ím
beadwork - k'pitlkmá
beans – píins
bear – anahoy or anahuy (big bear)
bear (Grizzly) - twít'ash; wapaanlá (plu)
beard – shwú; shúu (whiskers)
beaver – yíxa or wíshpush
beaver (Mountain beaver) - shkw'lá
bed - pnut'áwas
bedding – smáas
bee – witwína
beetle (water beetle) – tuklí
beggar - atl'awílam
bell – chatikáwas (hand bell)
bell – tíntin or kw'alálkw'alal (small bell)
belly (big) – Yakama
belly – nawát (abdomen); lawát (small belly)
belt - walats'wikáwas
berry (species) - ts'its'umslí
bet – pátukt; pátuksh (pot)
Big Dipper – Xalíishyama (literally “The Wolves”).
billfold – talápaas
bird (Mocking) – wawshuklá
bitterroot – pyaxí
bear (Big) – anahúy; yáka (Black or Brown bear).
blackberry – wisík
blackberry bush – wisíkaash
blackbird - tl'ítl'mxw; tl'ítl'amxw (redwinged blackbird).
blackwidow spider – tíshpun
blame – aníyani
blanket – lawiitsayklá (cotton or light blanket).
blanket – laypamá (saddle blanket).
blanket – shátay (wool blanket).
blanket robe – útpaas; útpas
blood – tilíwal
blossom – latít (flower).
blueback salmon – kálux
blueberry – ililmúk
blueberry bush – ililmúkaash
bluejay – xwáshxway
bobcat - pích'im; káap or pch'í
bobtail – twilút
body – wáwnakshash
boil - ts'its'úms (carbuncle, localized swelling or inflammation on the skin from infection).
bone – pípsh
book – tímash (paper book).
bottle – laputáy (glass)
both – papwák (two together).
both – niiptík (two things together).
bounce - t'ípt'ip
boundless space – howlaák
bowl - k'úuli (sng); k'úulil k'uulik (plu) (a shallow bowl like container or land formation).
bow – twínpaash (for shooting arrows).
box - pápiptl'k (fist fight).
boxer - papiptl'klá (pugilist).
boy – áswan (sng); amíisin (dual); amíisma (plu); áswanin (obj. sng).
bracelet – istíyas
braid – wápshash
brain – plús
branch (of a tree) – patísh (sng); patísapatish (plu).
brass – mixshlí
bread – saplíl or ipáax
breadroot - pank'ú (button)
breadroot – sikáywa
breakup - pák'ú (breakup into pieces).
breast - nik'út or lúlukash
breath – háasht
breechcloth - sapák'ilks
bride – ámtanat
bridegroom – cháynatsh
bridle – sapatsanpáwas
bridge – wáxwaykaash
broom - wak'aatkáwas
broth – twíixt or twáyxt
brown - shkw'íishkw'I
brush – wápashi (dense undergrowth).
brush – ptín (woods).
brush pheasant – simpaasá; washwásnu (American grouse).
bucket - k'púsh (pot).
bucket – tukway; tuksáy (water bucket or cooking pot).
bucking horse – wákmuykla
buckskin – limíslimis; buckskin horse - pa'áx
buddy – xáy
buffalo robe – wásimtatsay; wáshimtatsay
bullet – tanínsh (arrowhead).
bullhead fish - kw'ashlá
bullsnake – ppáaw or páaw
bunchgrass – alám or waskú
butt - k'iyásh; ít'it (rear).
butter – páta
buttercup – síkni
butterfly – walakwálak
buzzard - k'shpalí
cabbage – kápich
camas - wák'amu; tamshít; xmáash
camping place – wawtkáwaas
Canadian – Kicnhúuch
cane - túk'ash; túkw'ash
canned food – twáshani
canoe – wásiis; wásas; k'áwk
can-opener – waxintkáwas
cantaloup – latiwalí; xmíitxmíit
canteen – alashík
canvas - tl'waylí
canyon – xwísh
car – átmupil
cardgame – tsáxtsim
carrot – likaláat
carrot – sawítk (Indian carrot).
cartilage – kúmkum (Salmon head cartilage).
cat - p'úus or píshpish; kitís
catch – íwiik (catch in a trap).
Catholic – Chmuktáatpas
cattail - tk'ú (reed, tule)
cattle – músmustsin
cave – tánawit
cedar tree – nánk
celery – xísya or yaxsíkayaash (or low bush cranberry).
Celilo Indians – Wayámpam
Cemetery – yáwatash
chair – aykáwas
chaps – vilyakí
cheat – saptayák
Chelan Indians – Chlálpam
chest - níkw'a; íni
chick – pítpit (baby bird).
chicken – likúk
chickenhawk – kíya; kílush
chief – miyáwax; miyúux
child – miyánash
childbirth – xíit
chimney – lawilattpamá
chin - miskw'átt
Chinese – Chayníi
Chinese – Chálmin; Tsálmin
Chinook Wind – wináway or wináawa
Chinook Wind in Legends – Winaawayáy
Chinook Salmon – tkwínat; núsux
chipmunk – amít (bigger chipmunk).
chipmunk – misís (smaller chipmunk).
chokecherry – tmísh
chokecherry tree – tmíshaash
Christian – Tanamútimnii
chub - luk'á; lukw'á
cicada – txtx
circle dance - k'upíp
clam – siwáala; xshtú (freshwater clams).
clam – sháxu (saltwater clams).
claw – alá (sng); alá'ala (plu).
clay – maxáx (white clay).
cliff – tnán (rimrock).
cliff - tnánnak'it (base of cliff).
clock – aanpamá (sun-dial or time piece).
close - pák'ínk or páshcht
clothes – táatpas
cloud - shwát'ash or páshcht
coast – wanúkshi
Coast Indoans – Wanukshiláma
cobweb – íshtúkishtuksh
coffee – kúpi
coffeepot - mts'uxli
comb – twánpaas; twákushitpama; pinatwaanptpamá
commitment – kwyámtimt
companion – iyawtiklá
constipated - wits'axk'íi
cooler - sapák'paastpama (refrigerator, air conditioner).
copper - luts'anmí or lutsali
corn - sit'xwswáakul; sat'xwswaakul
cornhusk bag – wáwxpa
corral - k'alax
costume – wapáwat (outfit).
cotton good – síil
cottonwood tree – xźpxap
cougar - kw'ayawí; kw'aawí
cough - k'uk'úwit; ak'úwit
country – tiichám (earth, land).
cow – músmustsin (cattle).
Cowlitz Indians – Táytnapam (Uppper Cowlitz Indians).
coyote – spílya; Spilyáy (Coyote of legends).
crab - k'astila
crack - ch'ix
cradleboard - sk'ín; tíkaash
cramp - chátk'upksh
cranberry – xísya or yaxsíkayaash (low bush cranberry or celery).
crane - kw'áshkw'ash
crawfish - k'astilá
creature – kákya (bird or animal).
cricket – silksílk; tsilktsílk
cross – wáyk; wáych
crow - á'a
cupboard – tikaypamá
currant – xnín; xnán
currant bush – xnínaash
dam - pák'inksh
dance – tiníntinint (dance modern style).
dance – tsalihúumit (skip dance).
dance – twiixtwáashat (soup dance).
day – lkw'í (sng); lkw'ílkw'í (plu)
day – xáyx (time of light between one night & next).
day after day – tmíinwa (days indefinite).
deer - tl'álk (deer or elk)
deer – aníninsh; yukwaasíns (mule deer buck).
deer – yáamash (mule deer doe).
den – tánawiksh (lair).
dentalium shell – áxshaxsh
dented – psláa
depression - k'upíip (sng); k'upíip'upiip (plu) (bowl like depression on hillside).
design – chalútimash
devil – chílwitwapsúx
devil's club – aláala; ala'ála
dew – niníish
diaper – ntíxt; xtín
diarrhea – táwts'xt
digger – xnimlá (miner, prospector).
digging stick – kápin
digging stick handle - lap'álsh
dip net – aptpamá; twaluut'áwas
dipper - sutl'wanpáwas (cup with handle).
dirt – lílx; lálx
dish – tikáy
divorced – anákwt
dog - k'usík'usi; k'usik'úsi
doll - sap'alúx
door – pehísh
dove – mimím; wítalu (mourning dove).
down feathers – púkla
dowry – wíwxit or inawawísh (man's dowry).
dowry – tmáyiksh (woman's dowry).
dream – iwákt; awáycht
dress – shímx (bucksin dress, decorated or plain).
dress – wíyayti (decorated cloth dress).
dress - tl'píip (wing dress).
drizzle – sím
drum – kíwkiwlaas; kiwkíwlas
drumstick - wat'atpamá
drunkard – palaylá; pinachiilá; pinachuulá
drying shed – tyáwtaash (for fish).
duck – táshtash (canvasback duck).
Duck – Tashtáashya (Canvasback Duck in legends).
duck – xátxat (mallard duck).
Duck – Xatxáatya (Mallard Duck in legends).
dumplings - sapk'úyx
dung – píshaat
dust – lápxwt
dye – tamaniitpama
eagle - k'ámamul (bald eagle).
eagle – xwayamá; xwaamá (golden eagle).
ear – mishyú
earth – tiichám (land, country).
earwax – limxít
east – xáyxt; tináytt
eddy - sk'úuni edge - pá'ay
eel – asúm; k'súyas (lamprey).
egg – sasílaw; tamám
eggs – asúx (salmon eggs).
elbow - k'áshinu
elderberry - mit'íp
elderberry bush - mit'ípaash
elk - k'ayík (elk calf, calf colt).
elk – wiyapnít; wawúkya (bull elk).
elk – knúwat; tashímka (cow elk).
end - nák'it
Entiat Indians - Nt'íyatkw
equipment - kutkutt'áwas; kutkuttpamá (farm equipment, tools).
evening – anásht; kwláawit (at sunset).
exhibit - shapátk'I (show).
eye – áchaash; áchash
eyebrow – shlímkupaash; shlúmkpaash
eyeglasses – achaashpamá; achashpama
eyelash - shlimkw'átkw'at; sílkw'atkw'at
eyesight - tk'I - k'ínut (view, vision, sight).
eyewitness – kinulá (observer).
face – tpísh
face paint - shapáluch'aksh
family – ttáwaxt
fast - k'imsá (fast movement or tempo).
fat – yápaash; yápash (grease).
fawn – múps
feast - ká'ut (first food feast, used only for Feast).
feather – wáptas (wing).
feather – púkla (down feather).
feces – píshaat
female animal – ayatúks
fence - k'aláx (corral).
fern - ts'ámama
few – mílaa
file - sapats'imkáwas (whetstone).
Filipino – Pilapíinu
fin - píts'a (dorsal).
fin - isxín'isxin (side paddle fin).
finger – tkwapxlá (sng); tkwápxlaxla (plu).
finger – apápxla (sng); apápxlaxla (plu).
finger – apáplaymut (little finger).
finger – pachupamá (middle finger).
fire – ílkwsh
fish – waykáanash (generic fish).
fish – tkwalá; xúlxul (smaller fish, ie., trout, sucker, etc).
fish eggs – asúx
fish hook - k'íya
fishing pole – wawáasway
fish nets - ik'wálxisha
fist - paptl'káwaas
flag – cháwiluuksh (or banner).
flat land - k'áax
flint – sxáwkaas
float – yáwtanin
flour - ch'lay
flower – latít (blossom).
fluid – chíish; chúush (water, juice).
flute – píwtin
fly – muxlí
fog - pásts'at
food – tkwátat
food – iwínat (flesh food).
forehead – shwá
forgetful person – laaklá
fork - pakw'aakáwas
fox – lutsa tlípa (red fox).
fox – tuuptúup (silver fox).
frame – wáxwinknikt (side border).
Frenchmen – Aláyma
Friday – Páxalkw'i
fried bread – ílachxi saplil
friend – pásiks
friend – xítway (platonic)
friend – síks (buddy).
friendly – paxtwaylá
fringe – skítks
frog - aluk'át; alukw'át
frost - tk'núkt
fruit – tmaanít (berries)
fur – lawláw (beard, body hair).
future – íxwi
garden – tamaníksh
gelding – talalút
gills – tshyáwnu
girl - pt'íniks, pt'íits or pt'ínits (sng); pt'ilíma or pt'ilíma (plu).
gloves - lik'ím
goiter – yúyu
gold - luts'anmí; mixshmí
goose – ákak (Canadian goose).
gossip – patalwasklá (gossip, gossipy person).
grass - ts'íts'k; ts'íits'k; ts'íkts'k; waskú
grass – yáay (bear grass).
grass species – waskú
grass - wap'áy (grass species for basketry).
grasshopper - t'ít'sh
gravel – tamaláw; tamalám
gravel – shám (pea-size gravel).
grease – yápaash
grease – chucháy (from early blueback salmon).
grease - ts'ípts'p; ts'ímts (salmon grease).
greasy – yápaashyi
grey horse – lámt
grind – tútt
ground cherry - sapts'imlikí
groundhog – chíkchknu
grouse – ptí; tuyá (blue grouse).
growth - taxnunak'I (full growth).
guide - nakisik'walá
gum – waláas (gum pitch or chewing gum).
gun – twínpaash; twínpash
Gypsy people - Sák'áalma
hail - tamkw'íkw'I; tamsts'ílts'il
hair – tútanik
hair - kimláy'kimlay (wavy hair).
half – wítk
half and half – pawítk
halter – washtkáwaas
hammer – háma
hand – apáp; ipáp (arm).
handbag - sápk'ukt
handicraft – anísh
handerchief - liit'kpamá
handle of digging stick - lap'álsh
happening – txánat (occasion, event, something that happens).
harness – hánis
harrow - chap'uykáwas
hat – tákmaal
hat - patl'aapá (woman's basket hat).
haze - nít'ink
head – limtáx; llamtáx
headdress – wapálikaatsat (of porcupine quill).
heart – timná
heel - awxap'náy
hello – áay
hemp – taxús (Indian hemp).
hide - sk'imskím (dressed hide).
hide – skímskim (tanned buckskin hide).
hill - p'ushtáy
hip – tchísh
hobo – chawyaliltkúla
hole – tkúni
Holy Cross - Wat'apilyi
hoof rattles – layláy
hoop - k'alk'alíps (hoop on cradleboard).
hooves - asú'asu (deer hooves).
horn – anín; yúkwaas; yúkaas
horse - k'úsi
horse – takawáakush (dark bay horse).
horsefly – shtxní
hospital – payuwitpamá
hotel – wawtukáwaas (or motel).
house – iníit (sng).; iníitniit (plu).
house – nisháykt (dwelling).
housefly – muxlí
huckleberry – wíwnu
huckleberry – wiwlúwiwlu (small huckleberry species).
huckleberry patch – wiwnúwaash
hummingbird – xmamsá; xmimsá
hunger – anáwit
hunter – túxnalá (provider).
husband – ám
ice – ttúux; túux; taawáy
icicle - istín'istin
ignorance – tamlamáywyi
incompetence – tamlamáywit
incompetency – tamlamáyi
Indian custom – tiináwit (Indian way of life).
Indian doctor – twáti (medicine man).
inheritance - lpawtkw'í
instep – wixátimna
intestines - p'ípi
island – imawí
itch - mitsts'ípt
jackrabbit – wilalík
Japanese – Tsapaníis
jaw – imtnin
joint - pách'aksh (sng).; pich'aksh (plu). (of body).
juniper tree – púush
keepsake – shapánaknuwit kidney – sáylps; ak'páy'ak'pay
killdeer – tawyíit
kingfisher - t'úlulx
kinnikinnick – sapátwa; hutuhútu (Indian tobacco).
kinnikinnick berries – yúxpaas
Klickitat Indians – Xwálxwaypam; L'ataxat
knee - k'úxl
knife – xapilmí
knot – sapástkt (sng).; sápastkt (plu).
ladder - watík'aas
lake – watám (sng).; watamwatám
lamp - lakayxit'áwas
land – tiichám (country, earth).
language – sinwit; náttun
lariat – tamastkáwas
last - lak'isá; nak'ítxaw; nak'itxaw
law – tamánwit (government).
lawyer – lúya
lazy person - tawk'umlá
leader - wiyánch'i (elder).
leaf – apílapil; apáxapx (leaf from plant).
learn - wálsikw'at (learn by observing).
leech - k'úpsha
leg – wixá (also ‘foot').
legend - wat'ít'nash; walsáytsas; walsákt (myth).
leggings – nyátch (trousers).
liar - ch'ishklá
lice – apúlk (body lice).
lice – apín (head lice).
lick – miláy (sng).; miláy'milay (plu).
lid - pak'inkáwas; wak'inkáwas
lifeless – haashnút
light – lákayxit (daylight).
lightning – pataalá
liver - sit'áxs
lizard - watik'áasas
lizard species - pat'uulnawalá
lizard species - watik'áasasa
lodge-pole pine tree – xanimxánim; kalámkalam
longhouse – káatnam
louse – asás; nit
love – átawit
lungs - ashú'ashu; ashúushu
magpie - áy'ay; ách'ay
maiden – tmáy (sng).; ttmayíma (plu).
man – iwínsh (sng).; awínshma (plu).
many – alix; aláx; xlak (much).
mark - wáwshit'un (inscribe)
marrow – tápu
marten - p'íks
mat – áwshniksh (rug, floor covering).
mat - k'xlí (tule mat).
matches – tunís
material – síil (cloth).
material - chalutimt'áwas (cedar root, grass for making designs).
meadow – táak (sng).; taaktaak (plu).
meadowlark – xwíxwl
measles – láylay (smallpox, open sores).
meat – nukút (flesh).
medicine – tawtanúk; tawtnúk
medicine song – wánpaash
metal – isti (sng).; istí'ísti (hard metal, needle).
Methow Indians – Mítxupam
Mexican – Spanyúus
milk - nk'út; lúlukash
Milky Way – lshchít (literally “The Path”).
milt – mitáx (of fish).
miner – xnimxnimlá (digger, prospector).
mink – ptyáw
mirror - pinak'inut'áwas (window).
miscarriage – nimúyt
miss – áwx
mist - wílkw'ikt (fog).
mitt - lík'im (glove).
mitt - shp'awitpamá lík'im (baseball mitt).
moccasins - lk'ám
mockingbird – wawshuklá
mole – amí
Monday - Wának'it
monetaria shell – ámush
money – táala; xaxáykw
monster - kw'aali; kw'alali
moon – álxayx
more - wá'aw (greater than).
more - wiyalkw'it (more time, more days).
morning - skw'ípa; máytski
mortar - t'alúsh; k'púl
mosquito – wawá
moss - kw'inch (pine tree moss).
motel – wawtukáwaas (also hotel).
moth - ilkwshpat'alá
mountain – pátu (snowpeak).
mountain goat – wáaw
mountain lion – xwayawi (cougar).
mountains – pítxanuk (below tree line).
mountain sheep – tnúun
mouse – lákas
mouth – ím
movie - shapátk'i
mud - mitl'ílk
mud bath – tamáshimniish; tamáshimnuush
mule – limíil; múla
murder – pápinsh
mushroom – apán
mushroom – kisksá (edible mushroom, “Elephant Ears”.
musician – wanpawasilá (instrumentalist).
muskrat – ptís
mute – sinwiyál
myth - wat'ít'aash; walsáytsas; walsákt (legend).
mythical – walsátsas
name – waníkt; wanícht (sng).; wíwanich (plu).
naming ceremony – páwanikt
nape of neck – pníx
neck – tánwat
necklace – iwáywish; waháyakt
needle – istí (sng).; istí'ísti (plu).
Negro – Chmaakwlí
net – kwáyxw; awxat
net – awxit (fishing net).
news – táymu; támun
next door – shxáanit
next door neighbor – shxáanitlá
night - sts'át
nighthawk - p'iyu
nighttime - sts'át
nit – asás (lice).
no – cháw
north - k'písaasknik; k'sítaasknik
North Wind – Átya; Átyayáaya (North Wind in legends).
nose – núshnu; níshnu
nurse – náktkwaninlá
oak tree- ts'uníps
oath – kwyámtimt
oats – lawíin
obedience – páykt
obedient person – páykla
observance – twánat
observer – kinulá (eyewitness).
obsession – shapyáwyi (state of).
obsidian – chúkwsh
ocean – atáchiish; atáchuush
occupation – kútkut (business, trade).
occurrence – txánat; wíshaaycht (incident, happening).
Okanogan Indian - Ukanakin
old man – xwísaat (sng).; xwsaatúma
old woman – lmamá (sng).; lmamatúma
omen – pawaatlá
onion – stúpsa (wild species).
onion – sháak; shisháak (domestic species).
Oregon grape - lk'áwk'awaash; lk'awkaas
oriole – wawshuklá
orphan - ánut'at
otter – nuksháy
outlaw – shapatkwapwiluulá (holdup man).
outlet – shapawinattpamá
oven – tamaktpamá
owl – ámash; miimánu (barn owl).
owl – pípu; papú (burrowing owl).
pacer horse – wilatíksh
packrat – wishí
packsaddle – shapashaptpamá
paint – shápinchaash
paddle – wishanatitpamá
palm – apáptimna (of hand).
palomino horse – kauxkáux
pan – tuksáy (cup, vessel).
pan – ilachxáwas (skillet).
paper – tímash
parade – súnknik
parfleche – shaptákay (rawhide suitcase).
Paterson Indians – Nawawípam
path – ischít (sng).; ishchítishchit (plu). (road, trail).
paved - watl'akáshani (oiled).
peach - píchish
peas – lipwáa
peddler – kwninkwninlá
pen - timat'áwas (marking instrument).
periwinkle - wáxlilp'as
person – tíin; tanán (Indian person).
pestle – pnáy
phlegm – tanúxit
pick up – wiyántxaw (a friend in route).
pine beetle – lxáwkaal
pine cone – pananík
pine nut – niník
pine squirrel – sinmí
pine tree - táp'ash
pinto horse - támtl'aki
pipe – chálamat (calumet pipe).
pipe – chalámataash (clay pipe).
pitch – ishxí; ashxí
plains – áypx; áypax
plan – tmíyut
plant – tamaníksh (garden).
pledge – kwyámtimt (commitment)
plow - shakw'tkáwaas; sakw'tkáwaas
pointed - ts'kwíit (conical, pointed upward).
poison ivy - limtk'áx
pole – twá
policeman - walak'iklá
police station - walak'iklaamí pond – watámwatam
poplar tree – niní
porcupine – shíshaash
post – pátuksh
pot - k'púsh; k'púl (bucket).
pot – twashatpamá (cooking pot).
potato – wáptu; lapatáat
potato – anipásh (Indian potato).
poultice - tamátl'aksh
pounding recepticle – k'púl
prairie chicken - k'áxnu
prairie dog – limyá
prayer – tanamútimt
praying mantis – tyáwntyam
prongs – wanátash
prospector – xnimxnimlá
Pshwánapam Indians - Pshwánapam
purchase – itáyma (act of purchase).
pus – akísh
quail – pátashi
quills – kwíkwi (porcupine quills).
quilt – kwílt (comforter).
rabbit – áykws (cottontail rabbit)
rabbit – xuuplá; nukásh (snowshoe rabbit)
rabbitbrush – tawshá
rabbit dance – wílaalikwáashat
racoon - k'alas; k'laalas
rain - t'úxt'xw
rainbow – kapasháayat
rainbow trout – ayáy
rake - chák'aatkáwas; chák'uktpamá
rapids – wanawísh
rash – chaychaywí (pimples).
raspberry – sháxat
raspberry bush – sháxataash
rat – yáamas (kangaroo rat)
rattlesnake – waxpush
rattlesnake rattles – stítaas
raven – xúxux
rawhide rope – tamastkáwas
reins – sapatsanpawaspamá; chawitk'uk'áwas
relative – xítway
relative – náymu (kinsmen)
reservation – tímani tiichám
ribs – xípt
ribbon – lalupáa
rim - k'alúwas (on cradleboard), (edge of basket).
ring – sápxulkaas (finger ring).
ringworm - ch'áych'ay
river – wána; átwana
riverside – álayt
road – ishchit
roan horse – kashkáash
roasting spti – palpaas
robe – útpaas (blanket, shawl, shoulder covering).
robin – twískaka; wískaka; wílpakpak
rock – pshwá (sng).; pshwápshwa (plu). (stone)
Rock Creek Indians - K'milláma
Rock Island Indians – Kwaxchinláma
rodeo – shapáwakmuykt
Roman Catholic - Pít'lani
roof – áwtuksh (roof over).
roof - mk'áak'a (roof of mouth).
room - xá'ap (sng).; xaapxáap (plu).
root - mítz'ay (sng).; mits'áymits'ay (plu).
root - sápk'tit (root biscuit or cake).
root – áyut (bear root).
root – xnít (root foods).
root – chalúksh (species for medicine).
root – Various edible root species: lúksh, nunas, sít'xws; sát'uxs, yuktyúkt.
root – màmin (edible wild sweet root species).
rope – lúup; tamastkáwas
rope – wapsíki (braided rope).
roseberry – tamshaashunmí tmaanít
rubbish – shkushku; shkushkuni
ruler - sap'inawit'áwas
saddle - washat'áwas; wasat'áwas
saddleback – simkwi (a dip between two hills).
saddlebag – kantínas
saddleblanket – laypamá
saddlehorn - wáwst'aks; wisht'áa
sagebrush – píshxu; pshxú
sage hen – payúmsh; payímsh
saliva - tl'iyaas
salmon – kálux (blueback salmon).
salmon - wáts'ya; twiláttkwilat; máts'ya (calico salmon, jackspring).
salmon – núsux; tkwínat (Chinook salmon).
salmon - walt'akí (dried salmon fillet).
salmon – swis; iswis (dried salmon with skin).
salmon – sínxw; súnx (silver salmon, silversides).
salmon - mit'úla (white salmon, dog salmon).
salmon backbone – síwi
salmon flour - ch'láy
salmon head cartilage – kúmkum
salt – súul; katwát'áwas
sand – ninú; sayáykw
Sanpoil Indians – Sinpawáal
sash – xwshxwshí (woven belt).
Saturday - Tamáts'aakt; Wá'wit
scar - shich'alú
scarf - táwk'xsh
school – skulitpamá
school building – sapáskulitpamá
scissors - saalit'áwas
scout – shyaklá
seal – wálchayu
seed – anásh
segment – kútlk
seizure – kashkshúkit
select – shíxtaw (best, elite).
self-admiration - piná'atawi
self-approval – pinápwxi (vanity, conceit).
self-control - tma'áak (discipline).
self-ego – ilksá; inksá (selfish).
self-restraint - tma'áak (discipline).
selfish - twats'axí
sentinel – waachilá (lookout).
serenade – kliwáwyit (ballad).
serenade – huyaníkt (love song).
serf – ishwaníya (slave).
series – pápawiitwanani (sequence, succession).
sermon – txánwti (lecture).
serpent – pyúsh (snake, reptile).
services – tanamútim (devotions, prayer).
serviceberry – chcháya; chcháa
serviceberry bush – kayásuwaash; kkáasu
session - pawyak'ukt
set – tmiyunátat (determined, resolved).
set - ap'úkap'uk (jellied, stiff).
sever – shúxtlk (split).
shack – ilíitiliit (hut, shanty).
shade - shk'íish
shade - cháwiishk'ishit (screen, shudder).
shadow – lawiishkishit
Shamanism – Twatíwit
shame - tl'uya
sahme - tl'uyáa (humiliation).
shameless - pinatl'uyánal (disgraceful).
share – tamíinawit; tamáanawit (portion, allotment).
shave – spáta (brush, graze).
shave - wisláts'x (peel, pare).
shavings - wislats'ixt (kindlings).
shawl – lishaal (stole, wrap).
sheaf – walátkawa (stack, bundle).
shed - tamashk'ishish (shed for drying).
shed – ilíitliit
sheen – luxlúx (luster, shimmer).
sheep – tnúum (ram)
sheet – shapátlumx (film, membrane).
shell – wuxinsh (abalone shell).
Shell – Wuxinshyay (Abalone Shell in legends).
shell – áxshaxsh (dentalium shell).
shell – ámush (monetaria shell).
Shell – Amushyay (Monetaria Shell in legends).
shellfish clam – sháxu
shelter – iniit (home, housing).
shepherd – shiiplá (sheepherder).
sheriff - walak'ikla (police officer).
shift – xalúknima (slip, chemise).
shift – náktunx; náwtunx (transference).
shirt – táatpas (dress)
shock – yiút (earthquake).
shock - xálk'ik (surprise)
shoes – kaylí; k'apk'aplí (hard soled shoes).
shoot – pátish (branch, limb, bough).
shopkeeper – stualá (clerk).
shore – aláyt (seashore, seaside).
shortage – mílaa (insuufficiency).
shortening – yápaash (grease, fat, oil).
shorts – niyách (bloomers, drawers, bermudas, knickers).
shot – wiyálpaas (bullet, slug).
shot – chíit; chúut (drink, snort).
shot – tixúna (projectile).
shoulder - k'ámkaas; k'ámkas
show - isík'wat (act of showing).
side – ktíx
side – íshat (half).
side glance – shlúxaap; shnúxaap (sng).; shnúxa'ápxa'áp (plu).
sifter – shapawiishwxtpamá
sight - tk'í; k'ínut (eyesight, view, vision).
silk – silkmí (rayon goods).
silver – taalanmí
silver – táala; xaxáykw (money, dollar).
sinew – wítsaas
sinew thread – wítsaas, wítsas
skewer – pálpaas
skin – ápax (hide).
skin – psá (skin of salmon).
skirt - k'wipamá
skunk – tiskáy
Skunk – Tiskáaya (Skunk of legends).
skunk cabbage – tiyalaxúxu
sky – witúxan; túxan
slave – ashwaníya
slave – mítash (lackey).
slime – liklík (salmon slime).
smoke – látílkt
snake – pyúsh
snow – púuy
snowbird – puuyáy
snow crust – taxwíl
snowdrift - wilá'ik'ukt
so and so – sháakwn
socks – stákin
socket – pakwchtpamá (plug).
soldier – súltsas
some – ttúsh (certain).
soot – láasxum
sorrel horse - mak'ísh; mak'ásh
soul - wak'íshwit
south - ts'múyknik; láxwiixtaashknik
sparrowhawk – yítyit; yíxyix; wapinyawala
spawning – isá (spawning blueback salmon).
spawning ground – áyaash
spear pole – tiixáy (main shaft).
spider – wixalxalí
spider web – shtukwsh-shtúksh
spine - k'úpk'up (back).
spinning top – wiiskliklá
spit – pálpaas
Spokane Indians – Spukánma
spoon – súxaas
spotted horse - támtl'aki
spring – winátt; wanáytt (spring of water).
springtime – wúuxam; wawáxm
spurs – layláy
squash – skwáas; skáasis; maxáshmaxash
star – xaslú
steam – lámukt
steelhead trout – shusháynsh
steep - k'att (steep slope, steep hill).
stew – lakamíin (flour thickened stew).
stick - watl'ikáwas (stick for beating time).
stinkbug – tíish
stirrups - txnimt'at'áwas
stoicism - tma'áak (discipline).
stomach - ák'paash
store – stúa (shop, market).
story – timnanáxt (remembrance).
stove – kuukítpamá
straight pin - k'apúus
stranger – shíwanish (Nez Perce dialect).
strawberry – suspán
strawberry plant – suspánaash
strawberry roan - luch'alamtx
stream – waypxt (sng).; wíwaypxt (plu). (tributary stream).
string – wapsíki (woven string, rope).
stroke – kashkshúkit (convulsion).
stubborn person – payknál
stud – taláyi (anything that sires.)
student – skulilá (literate person).
sturgeon – wílaps
sucker – xwín
sucker – yáykw
sugar – shúuka
summer – shátim; shátmiki
sun – áan
sunbeam – ichú
Sunday – Pachwaywit; Sapálwit
sundown – anásht
sunflower – xálya; páshxá
sunset – tinaynakt
surgery – shúwa
surprise - xálk'ik
swallow - t'íxt'ix
swan – wawkikúk; wishanahlá
sweat – láatlat (perspiration).
sweathouse – xwayátsh
swim – shimnati (sng).; shimníshimnin (plu).
table – tkwatatpamá
tail – twín; wálwas
take – tyanípt (take away something by force).
tardy - kw'aamil
teacher - sapsikw'alá
teaching - sápsikw'at
teardrop - lp'úl
telescope – walimlaylaktpamá (binoculars, field glasses).
tepee - ts'xwilí
temple - yuk'áat
thigh – wánsh
thief – paxwílam
thimble – istipamá; wisxtip'is; waskw'íl
this and that – patún (sng).; patúlpatul (plu)
. thoroughbred horse – wayxtitpamá; pawilawiixtpamá
thread – wisxáwas
throat - núkw'aash; núkw'ash
thunder – nawinalá
Thursday - Pináplkw'i
tick – apshíx
time – pamimúm (immemorial).
time - wiyalkw'it (more time, more days).
tin – tawtawlí
toad – pamtá
tobacco – táwax
tobacco – sapátwa; hutuhútu (Indian tobacco).
toe – awxáxla (sng).; awxáxlaxla (plu).
tomahawk - k'aplash; k'áplaats
tomato – tmítus
tongue – milíish; miláash
tooth – itít; k'shtín
towel - pinasapakw'stikáwas (pocket handkerchief).
town – táwn (city).
toy - lk'iwitpamá; lk'iwit'áwas
track – watíksh (footprint).
trading partner – yalípt
trading post – palxtaymatpamá
train – káas
transference – náktunx; náwtunx (change).
trap – túkwsh
trapper – túklá
treaty - pa'aníxwat
tree – pátat
trousers – nyátch (leggings)
trotter horse – wilakiitlá
trout – tkwalá; xúlxul
trout – chíwa (Dolly Varden trout).
truth – kwyáamtimt
truth – kwyámtim (state of being the case).
tuberculosis – tánúxit
Tuesday - Naplkw'i
tule meat - k'uxlí
tunnel – wanáynakt
turkey – táki; kwilkwilla
turnip – tánaps
turtle – alashík
twine – tkní (string).
Umatilla Indians – Amatalamlama; Imatalamlama
undergarment – mitichnipamá (man's undergarment).
undergarment – xaluktnimá (woman's undergarment).
unkempt – cháwpx
uvula - ktlaanukw'aash
veins - ak'úshakw'sh
vent – shapawinattpamá (outlet).
verse – wáwinat (portion of song).
view - tk'i; k'ínut (sight).
village – nisháykt
villian – wapcháy
vine – taxús (foxtail species).
vine – txú (vine species).
vision - tk'í; k'ínut
visitor – wiyánawilá
volcano – lawilatlá
vomit – chípshit
wade – yáxnin
wagon - ts'íkts'ik
waist - k'wí
wampum - t'álpt
wapato bulb – wáptu
war - píitl'iyawit (killing).
warbonnet – twinúushush
wardance – paaxamkt
warrior - piitl'iyawilá
washbasin - shmat'at'áwas; shmat'atpamá
wasp – shimkshímk
wasp - lawiipt'atá
water – chíish; chúush
waterbag - lp'áanak (canvas waterbag).
watermelon – mílins
wave – shapakíshk (curl).
weapon – winánpsh
weasel – watáy (weasel in winter).
weasel - ts'ilala (weasel, ermine in winter).
Wednesday - Mitálkw'i
weir – nxanásh; naxanáan (fish weir).
Wenatchee Indians – Winátshapam
west – tináynakt; tináynacht
whale – sutxlá
what – tún
whatchamacallit – taakwn
whatever – anatum (anything).
wheat – aytalú
whipman – iwlá
whipman – wawyalá (whipman of children).
whirlpool - wiiskw'nikt; wiishkw'
whirlwind - sk'ulúlupt
white – sáxi (white ironwood).
whitefish – símay
White man - Páshtinin; shuyápu
who – shín
widow, widower – palaxsíks
wife – ásham
wild celery – xásya; xamsí
willow - tluts'aní; tuxah
wind – hulí
wind – wislátsaykt
window - pinak'inut'áwas (mirror)
wing – wáptas (feather).
winter – ánim; ánmiki
wiping cloth - sapakw'stakáwas
wolf – lalawísh; xálish
wolvernine - p'iks; piiks
woman – áyat; tílaaki
wood – ílkwaas; ílkwas
woodpecker - ch'íya
woodpecker – síwsiw (Lewis woodpecker).
work – kútkut (employment, job).
worm – ásháy; saysáy
worship – wáashat (dance, Indian religion).
Yakama Indians – Mámachatpam
year – anwíkt; anwícht
yearling – inwimá
yes – íi
yew tree - shkw'mit (ironwood tree).
yolk – xawít (yolk of an egg).
young – ináwaw; ináw (young man).
young – ístama (young of animal or bird).
youngest – láymut



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