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Aikana Language (Tubarão, Masaka, Monde)

Language: Aikana is a language of South America, spoken by 100 people in Brazil. Some linguists believe it may be related to the Arawakan language family. Aikana is a morphologically complex tone language with many suffixes and primarily SOV word order.

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Names: The name the people use to refer to themselves and their language is Aikanã, but several other names have been recorded over the years, including Massaka, Tubarão, Huarí, Kasupá, Mundé, and Corumbiara. Most of these probably either referred to particular Aikana bands or place names, or were names for the Aikanas in neighboring tribes. ("Mundé" is a given name in the Aikana language, and may have referred to a particular Aikana leader.) Today these alternate names are sometimes still used as synonyms of "Aikana." Other common spellings include Aicana, Aikaná, Masaká, Masaka, Masaca, Massaca, Massaká, Tubarao, Tubaro, Warí, Huari, Wari, Uari, Cassupá, Kasupa, Mondé, Munde, Korumbiara, Kolumbiara, and Columbiara.

Our Online Aikana Materials

Aikana Glossary:
    Our list of vocabulary words and their meaning in the Aikana language.
Aikana Pronunciation Guide:
    How to pronounce Aikana words.
Aikana Animal Words:
    Picture dictionary of animal words in the Aikana/Tubarao language.
Aikana Body Parts:
    Online and printable worksheets showing parts of the body in the Aikana/Tubarao language.
Aikana Numbers:
    Worksheet showing how to count in the Aikana language.

Aikana Language Resources

Aikana Phonology:
    Linguistic chart of phonemes in the Aikana language.
    Aikana language information including a map of Brazil. Page in Spanish.
House of Languages: Aikaná
     Information about Aikaná language usage.
Tubarão Language:
    Demographic information on Aikana from the Ethnologue of Languages.
Aikana Language Tree:
    Theories about Aikana's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
Aikaná Language Structures:
    Aikana linguistic profile and academic bibliography.
Language use on the Tubarão-Latundê reserve, Rondônia, Brazil:
    Linguistics article on Lakonde and Aikana language usage.

Aikana Culture and History Links
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Native and National in Brazil:
    Interesting book for sale on the role of indigenous people in Brazilian society.
Indigenous People of Brazil: The Aikanã:
    Several articles on Aikana culture and history.
    Brief profile of the Aikana Indians.

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Links, References, and Additional Information

  Endangered Languages Project: Aikana:
Bibliography of Aikana language resources.
  Wikipedia: Aikana:
  Encyclopedia entry on the Aikana language.
  OLAC: Aikana:
  Reference list of Aikana language materials.
  Os Aikanã * Os Aicanãs:
  Information about the Aikanas in Portuguese.

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