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Miami-Illinois Possession

On our parts of the body and kinship terms worksheets, you may notice that all the Miami-Illinois words begin with N. N- is a Miami-Illinois prefix that means "my." Possessive prefixes can be used with almost any noun in Miami-Illinois. The possessive prefixes are ni-, ki-, or ho- before most nouns that start with consonants, and nint-, kit-, or at- before most nouns that start with vowels.

ahseni (a rock) nintahsenemi (my rock) kitahsenemi (your rock) atahsenemi (his or her rock)
mahkisini (a moccasin) nimahkisini (my moccasin) kimahkisini (your moccasin) amahkisini (his or her moccasin)


However, certain nouns (including most body parts and kinship terms, and some words for personal objects like clothing) have inalienable possession in Algonquian languages like Miami-Illinois. That means you must use a possessive prefix with one of those words. You cannot say *kya, "a mother," or *tooni, "a mouth." It isn't grammatically correct.

For these words, the possessive pronouns are slightly different. The prefixes are usually ni-, ki-, and a- before nouns beginning with a consonant, and n-, k-, and w- before nouns beginning with a vowel. Before nouns beginning with o, the third person possessive prefix is usually not pronounced at all.

*kya (root noun, not used alone) nikya (my mother) kikya (your mother) akyali (his or her mother)
*tooni (root noun, not used alone) nitooni (my mouth) kitooni (your mouth) atooni (his or her mouth)
*oohkoma (root noun, not used alone) noohkoma (my grandmother) koohkoma (your grandmother) oohkomali (his or her grandmother)
*iipiti (root noun, not used alone) niipiti (my tooth) kiipiti (your tooth) wiipiti (his or her tooth)

Two things to take note of:

1) When animate words use the third person form ("his or her"), there is not only a prefix (a- or w-) but also a suffix (-li) at the end of the word. This is not true for inanimate words.

2) Not every Miami-Illinois noun will exactly fit this pattern. Every language, including Miami-Illinois, has irregular words. If you make a mistake, a Miami-Illinois speaker would probably still understand you, just like an English speaker understands a person who says "fighted" instead of "fought."


Click here for a pronunciation guide.
Click here for more Miami-Illinois language resources.
Learn more about the Miami and Illini tribes.


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