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Mi'kmaq Culture and History (Micmac)

As a complement to our Mi'kmaq language information, we would like to share our collection of indexed links about the Mi'kmaq people and various aspects of their society. This website emphasizes American Indians as living people with a present and a future as well as a past. Mi'kmaq history is interesting and important, but the Mi'kmaq are still here today, too, and we try to feature modern writers as well as traditional folklore, contemporary artwork as well as museum pieces, and the issues and struggles of today as well as the tragedies of yesterday. Suggestions for new links are always welcome.

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Our Mi'kmaq Websites

Mi'kmaq Language:
    Information and language learning materials from the Mi'kmaq Indian language.
Mi'kmaq Facts for Kids:
    Questions and answers about Mi'kmaq culture.
Mi'kmaq Legends:
    Collection of Mi'kmaq Indian legends and folktales.

Mi'kmaq Tribal and Government Websites

Official homepages of individual Mi'kmaq Nations, with information about tribal leadership, services, and events:
Chapel Island Mikmaq First Nation (Potlotek), Nova Scotia,
Eskasoni Mi'kmaq First Nation, Nova Scotia,
Membertou Mi'kmaw First Nation, Nova Scotia,
Millbrook Mi'kmaq First Nation, Nova Scotia,
Big Cove Micmac First Nation, New Brunswick,
Fort Folly First Nation (Kwesawék Mi'kmaq), New Brunswick,
Red Bank Micmac First Nation (Metepenagiag), New Brunswick,
Bouctouche Micmac First Nation, New Brunswick,
Listuguj Mi'gmaq (Restigouche), Quebec,
Micmac Nation of Gespeg, Quebec,
Micmacs of Gesgapegiag, Quebec,
Indian Head First Nations, Newfoundland,
Kitpu First Nation, Newfoundland,
Benoit First Nation, Newfoundland,
Corner Brook Micmac First Nation, Newfoundland,
Qalipu First Nation Band, Newfoundland.
Lennox Island Mi'kmaq First Nation (Malpeque), Prince Edward Island,
Abegweit Mi'kmaq First Nation, Prince Edward Island.
Aroostook Band of Micmacs, Maine.

Union of Nova Scotia Indians:
    Representing the Acadia, Chapel Island, Eskasoni, Membertou, Shubenacadie, Wagmatcook, and Waycobah Mikmaqs of Nova Scotia.
Confederacy of Mainland Mi'kmaq:
    Representing the Afton, Annapolis Valley, Bear River, Glooscap, Millbrook and Pictou Landing Mikmaqs of Nova Scotia.
Federation of Newfoundland Indians:
    Representing the Micmacs of Newfoundland.
Union of New Brunswick Indians:
    Coalition of Maliseet and Micmac First Nations.
Gesgapegiag First Nation * Gespeg First Nation * Listuguj First Nation:
    Government profiles of the three Micmac First Nations of Quebec.
Ktaqamkuk Mi'kmaq Alliance:
    Advocacy organization for the Micmac people of Newfoundland and Labrador.
St. John River Valley Tribal Council:
    Advisory services for the Maliseet and Micmac First Nations of New Brunswick.
Mi'kmaq Family Treatment Centres:
    Counseling services for the Nova Scotia Mi'kmaqs.
Native Council of Nova Scotia:
    Providing services to Nova Scotia Micmac families living off-reserve.
Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nations Chiefs:
    Information, services, and outreach for the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy First Nations in Canada.

Mi'kmaq Education and Community Websites

Mi'kmaq-Maliseet Institute:
    Centre for Maliseet and Micmac education at the University of New Brunswick.
Mi'kmaw Kina'matnewey:
    Educational organization for the Micmacs of Nova Scotia, with links to Micmac schools.
Mi'kmaq Association for Cultural Studies:
    Organization promoting the Micmac tribe's culture and history.
National Lnu Association:
    Organization seeking to empower the Micmac people worldwide.
The Labrador Metis Nation * Innu Reaction to the Labrador Metis Nation:
    Organization for Labrador people of mixed Indian, Inuit, and European lineage.
    Organization committed to maintaining the integrity and way of life of the Wabanaki Nations.
First Nations Education Council:
    Organization dedicated to supporting indigenous schools and students in Quebec First Nations.
    Micmac-owned Internet service provider of Newfoundland.
Ulnooweg Development Group:
    Mi'kmaq-owned small business consultant for Maliseet and Micmac Nations.
Waycobah Secondary School * St. Anne's School (Miawpukek):
    Micmac tribal highschool pages, with culture and community information.
Aroostook County's Tribal Chiefs:
    Interview with Brenda Commander and Rick Getchell, leaders of the Maliseet and Micmac tribes of Maine.

Books for sale on the Mi'kmaq Indians
Our organization earns a commission from any book bought through these links

Mi'gmaq-English Dictionary * English-Micmac Dictionary * Mi'kmaq Hieroglyphic Prayers:
    Micmac language books.
The Mi'kmaq Anthology:
    Excellent collection of cultural writings by Mi'kmaq people.
We Were Not the Savages: A Mi'kmaq Perspective:
    Colonial history from the standpoint of Micmac oral tradition, by a prominent Native historian.
Let Us Remember the Old Mi'kmaq:
    An illustrated history of the Mi'kmaw tribe from the Confederacy of Mainland Mi'kmaq.
The Mi'kmaq: Resistance, Accommodation, and Cultural Survival * The Old Man Told Us: Excerpts from Micmac history:
    Myth, Symbol and Colonial Encounter: British and Mikmaq Indians in Acadia:
    First Nations, Identity, and Reserve Life: The Mi'kmaq of Nova Scotia:
    History books about the Mikmaqs and their struggles.
Out of the Depths: The Experiences of Mi'kmaw Children at Indian Residential School:
    The harrowing story of institutional child abuse at Shubenacadie Residential School, told by a Mi'kmaq survivor.
Micmac By Choice:
    Biography of Elsie Sark, a British woman who married into the Lennox Island Micmacs.
Micmac: How Their Ancestors Lived Five Hundred Years Ago:
    A good cultural and historical overview of the Micmac Indians for children.
Glous'gap Stories of the Micmac Indians * Six Micmac Stories * Stories from the Six Worlds * Nine Micmac Legends:
    Folklore of the Micmac Indians.
We Are The Dreamers * Song of Rita Joe:
    Poetry and autobiography by Mi'kmaq poet Rita Joe.
Indian Singing:
    Poems by Onondaga-Micmac writer Gail Tremblay.
Life and Death of Anna Mae Acquash:
    Book about the slain Mi'kmaq activist.
Micmac Quillwork:
    How Micmac Indian artists did porcupine quill decoration.
Mi'kmaq and Maliseet Cultural and Ancestral Material:
    Photographic exhibit of Mi'kmaq art and artifacts from the Canadian Museum of Civilization.
Uncommon Threads: Wabanaki Textiles, Clothing, and Costume:
    Photo-essay on Mi'kmaq and other Wabanaki textile arts from the Maine State Museum.
Twelve Thousand Years:
    Reference book on the Micmacs and other American Indians of Maine.
Native American Books:
    Evolving list of books about Native Americans in general.

Maps of Mi'kmaq Lands

    Map of traditional Mi'kmaq territory labeled with Mi'kmaq placenames.
Mi'kmaq Territory Map:
    Two Micmac maps by First Nations historian Daniel Paul.
Native Americans of New England:
    Map of Micmac and other American Indian territories in the early Canada/New England area.
First Nations Map: * Location of Amerindian Communities:
    Maps of Quebec showing where the Micmac and Malecite First Nations live.
Maine Native American Culture:
    Historical maps for the Micmacs and other Native Americans of Maine.
Maine Indian Reservation:
    Map showing the location of the Micmac reservation in Maine.
Virtual Museum of New France: Northern Algonquians:
    Historical maps and articles about the Micmac, Montagnais, Ojibway, and other northeastern tribes.

Mi'kmaq Lifestyle and Tradition

The Mikmaq People:
    Article on the traditional Mi'kmaq way of life (including clothing, food, and transportation.)
Newfoundland Micmac Culture:
    Pre-contact hunter-gatherer lifestyle of the Micmac Indians.
    History of the Micmac tribe in Canada.
Quebec History: Micmac Indians:
    Anthropology text on the Micmac tribe.
The Micmac of Megumaagee:
    Essay on Micmac Indian culture in early Nova Scotia, drawn from several older sources.
Micmac and Maliseet: First Nations of the Maritimes:
    Essays by Robert Leavitt about the Maliseet and Micmac Indians of New Brunswick.
Mi'kmaq People:
    Ethnographic and linguistic information about the Mikmaq people today.
First Peoples: Micmacs:
    Demographic and linguistic information about the Micmac Nation of Quebec.
Community Profiles of Mi'kmaq Reserves:
    Ethnographies of ten Micmac nations in Canada, with history, photographs, and population statistics.
Micmac Culture * Mi'kmaq Past * The Mi'kmaq People of Atlantic Canada:
    Cultural overviews of the Micmac Indians.
The Micmacs * Micmac Profile:
    Micmac culture and traditions in Quebec.
Ktaqmkuk Mi'kmaq:
    Mi'kmaq culture and heritage in St. George's Bay.
A Little Piece of Mi'kmaq Culture:
    Mi'kmaq resources including interviews, fact pages, and a video clip collection.
The Micmacs of Quebec:
    Articles about contemporary Micmac life.
    Articles on Mi'kmaq history, culture, and traditions by a Mi'kmaw woman from Kejimkujik.
Micmac Gender Roles:
    Micmac gender, sex, and childbearing traditions.
Mi'kmaq Portraits Collection:
    Mikmaq photos and drawings from the Nova Scotia Museum viewable online.
Mi'kmaq Cultural Objects * Hog Island Artifacts * Micmac Artifacts * Mi'kmaq Artifacts * Mikmaq Holdings:
    Picture galleries of Mi'kmaq artifacts, including baskets, costume, jewelry, arrowheads, axes, and tools.
Mi'kmaq Clothing * Wearable Art * Headband * Micmac Coat * Indian Regalia:
    Pictures of Micmac clothes (including shawl and jingle dresses, peaked caps, pouches, and other ceremonial costume).
Mi'kmaq Ribbon Skirts and Shirts * Wikipedia: Native Ribbons:
    Articles on Mi'kmaq ribbon applique work.
Canoeing Cultures: Micmacs:
    Abenaki and Micmac canoe-building and traditional culture.
Algonquian Bark Canoes:
    Micmac and other Indian canoes, with pictures showing the differences between canoe styles.
Wigwam Homes * Wabanaki Indian Food:
    Mi'kmaq and other Native American food, shelter, and way of life.
Carved in Stone * Mi'kmaq Petroglyphs:
    Definitions and pictures of ancient Micmac petroglyph art.
Mi'kmaq Flags * Micmaq Flags * Benoit First Nation Flag
    Acadia First Nation Flag: * Aroostook Micmac Flag:
    Flags of the Mikmaq Nation, Grand Council, and individual Mi'kmaq bands.
Mi'kmaq Calendars * Days and Months in Micmac:
    The Micmac calendar and days of the week.
Micmac Recipes * Mi'kmaq Venison Stew * Wild Rice Tarts:
    Mi'kmaq recipe pages.
Micmac and Maliseet Powwows:
    Maliseet and Micmac Indian dances, songs, drums, and mawiomi (powwow).
Waycobah Pow-Wow * Chapel Island Powwow * Listuguj Traditional Pow Wow:
    Mawiomi (pow-wows) at Mi'kmaq First Nations.
Saint Ann's Mission:
    The traditional Mi'kmaq St. Ann Mission celebration.
Mi'kmaq Treaty Days * Mi'kmaq Treaty Day Celebration:
    The Mi'kmaq Treaty Day festival.
Micmac/Penobscot Bow * Cable-backed Bows:
    Articles on the construction of the unusual Micmac style of double bow.
Mi'kmaq Games * Waltes Game * Waltes: * Waltes * Waltes Multimedia:
    Traditional Mi'kmaq Indian games and toys.
Micmac Hockey Sticks: * Mi'kmaq Hockeyists:
    Hockey's origins as a Canadian fusion of a traditional Mi'kmaq sport and Irish hurley.
Mi'kmaq Hieroglpyhs:
    History of the ancient Micmac writing system.
Mi'kmaq Plan: Grades 4-6 * Brenda Jeddore's Mi'kmaq Unit:
    Mi'kmaq educational materials and lesson plans.
Micmac Medicines, Foods and Teas:
    Traditional use of herbs by the Micmac Indian tribe.

Mi'kmaq Religion and Mythology

Glooscap Stories and other Micmac Legends:
    Compendium of Mi'kmaq legends and folktales.
Storytelling: The Art of Real Knowledge * Mi'kmaq and Maliseet Storytelling:
    Storytelling in the Mikmaq Indian culture.
Seeking Native Spirituality:
    Advice for people researching traditional Micmac religion and other American Indian spirituality.
Micmac and Maliseet Spirituality:
    Maliseet and Micmac religion, rituals, and mythology.
Mi'kmaw Language, Spirituality & Medicine:
    Mi'kmaq spiritual beliefs and use of healing herbs.
Mi'kmaq Culture:
    Mi'kmaq religious traditions including drumming, smudging, fasting, sweat lodges, powwows, and the talking circle.
Sacred Symbols:
    The Mi'kmaq significance of eagle feathers, peace pipes, sweetgrass, drums, and the sweat lodge.
Mi'kmaq Ceremonies and Symbols:
    Mi'kmaq Indian spiritual traditions including vision quests, the sweetgrass ceremony, and the colors of the medicine wheel.
Mi'kmaq Spirit:
    Micmac religious traditions including the medicine wheel, sacred pipe, fasting, and the role of Mi'kmaw women.
Religious Traditions of the Micmac of Newfoundland:
    Historical passages on Micmac Catholicism and native mythology.
Traditional Lifestyles:
    Native religious practices of Lennox Island (both Mi'kmaq and Sioux).
Mi'kmaq Spirituality:
    History of Christianity and pre-Christian spirituality at Miawpukek.

Mi'kmaq Arts and Crafts

Craftwork of the Maritimes:
    Micmac art and traditional crafts.
Maine Native American Basketmaking * Northeast Tribes Basket Gallery:
    Maine Indian Baskets * Micmac Baskets:
    Splint basketry of the Micmacs and other Northeast Indians.
Mi'kmaq Quillboxes * Porcupine Quill Decoration on Birch Bark * Porcupine Quill Embroidery:
    Porcupine quill embroidery of the Micmac tribe.
Brilliantly Beaded * Micmac Bead Work:
    Beadwork designs of the Micmacs and other Northeast American Indians.
Micmac Flute Carver:
    Hand-carved Micmac flutes for sale.
Autumn Leaf Productions * Micmac Crafts:
    Stores selling Micmac Indian arts and crafts.
Red Crane Studios:
    Alan Syliboy, Mi'kmaq artist.
Mic Mac Carvings:
    Artwork by Big Cove Micmac artist Randy Simon.
Native American Art:
    Information, photographs and links about Micmac and other native artists.

Mi'kmaq Literature and Music

Rita Joe * Windspeaker * Native American Authors: Rita Joe * Rita Joe:
    Rita Joe Biography * Song of Rita Joe * We are the Dreamers:
    Rita Joe, poet laureate of the Micmac Nation.
Native American Authors: Gail Tremblay * Indian Humor * Indian Singing:
    Gail Tremblay, Mi'kmaq-Onondaga poet and visual artist.
Dr. Daniel N. Paul * We Were Not the Savages:
    Mi'kmaq author and historian Daniel Paul.
The Fatness of It:
    Essay by Micmac author Patricia Clark Smith.
Native American Authors: Mi'kmaq:
    Mi'kmaq authors, their lives and work.
Lee Cremo * Lee Cremo Page:
    Music by legendary Micmac fiddler Lee Cremo.
Morning Star:
    Mi'kmaq folk duo Morning Star (musicians Richard and Alex Poulette).
    Mi'kmaq singer performing a First Nations version of the Beatles song "Blackbird."
Medicine Dream Homepage * Medicine Dream * Medicine Dream * Mawio'mi * Tomegan Gospem:
    Contemporary fusion-rock band Medicine Dream, led by Newfoundland Mi'kmaq musician Paul Pike.
    CD of traditional Mi'kmaq songs and chants.
    CD of Christmas songs in the Mi'kmaq language.
Songs of the Wabanaki * Voices of Katahdin:
    Traditional Penobscot and Micmac music and drumming.
Indian Bay Singers:
    Mi'kmaq musical group.
Mi'kmaq Family:
    Movie by Mi'kmaq filmmaker Catherine Martin about life in a Nova Scotia First Nation community.

Mi'kmaq Journalism and News Sources

Mi'kmaq News:
    Moderated newsgroup dedicated to Mikmaq issues.
Bay St George Mi'kmaq News:
    Online news source with frequently updated links of interest to the Mi'kmaq community.
Wabanaki Legal News:
    Legal information, news and support for the American Indians of Maine.
    Articles about Maine Indian issues.
Micmac Maliseet Nation News * Mikmaq Maliseet Nation News:
    Information about the newspaper here, but the articles are not available online.
Membertou News:
    Membertou Mi'kmaq Nation's community newsletter.
Mikmaw Kinamatnewey News:
    Archives of Mi'kmaq-related news stories.

Mi'kmaq Politics and Issues

Is the Crown at War with Us?:
    Documentary film by indigenous artist Alanis Obomsawin about the suppression of Mi'kmaq fishing rights in Canada.
The Marshall Judgement * Native Rights * Mikmaq and Maliseet Indian Nations Attacked:
    Burnt Church Fishery * Fishing Rights Battle * Ma rshall v. Canada:
    The Marshall decision and the struggle for Micmac and Maliseet indigenous treaty rights in Canada.
Protecting Maine Rivers:
    Micmac and other native efforts to protect Maine rivers from dioxin and mercury pollution.
Native American Human Remains * Important Change in Maine Law:
    Repatriation of American Indian human remains in Maine.
Save Mi'kmaq Burial Grounds * We Were Not the Savages: Micmac Burial Ground:
    Articles about protecting traditional Micmac Indian burial grounds from development.
Repeal Mi'kmaq Scalping Order * Scalp Law Still On Books * Bounty On Indian Scalps:
    Native efforts to repeal still-existing Nova Scotia laws offering bounties for Mi'kmaq scalps.
The John Gorham Controversy:
    Opinions about a Nova Scotia decision to name a road after scalp-hunter John Gorham.
Maine House Bans the Word 'Squaw' * The "Squaw" Word * Squaw:
    Bill to Ban 'Squaw' from Place Names * Squaw Names * Hurtful Words:
    The fight by Maine Indians to rename landmarks with the word squaw in them.
Eagle Feathers Denied at Border:
    Clashes between US customs officials and the Micmac Indians.
Fort Folly Youth Learn About Mi'kmaq Culture:
    The revival of Micmac culture on Canadian reservations.
A National Disgrace:
    Editorial addressing problems facing Maliseet and Micmac natives of New Brunswick.

Mi'kmaq History

Micmac Aboriginal Life * Micmac Life Part 2:
    Detailed two-part ethnography of the pre-contact Micmacs, written by a native historian.
Mikmaq History:
    Micmac history from the First Nations Histories.
History of the Mi'kmaq People:
    Precolumbian history of the Micmac Indians, with pictures and a map.
History of the Mi'kmaq Tribe:
    Archaeology, historical timeline, and Mi'kmaq oral history.
Separation of the Micmac Indians from the Beothuk:
    Micmac oral history about conflict between the Micmacs and the Beothuks (Red Indians).
Míkmawey Mawiómi:
    Micmac political history.
Maine Timeline of Native American Culture * Wabanaki Indian Collection * Ready to Tell Overdue Story:
    People of the Dawn * People of the Dawnland:
    Micmac and other Maine Indian history.
History of the Micmac People:
    History of the Tarrateen War (1607-1617).
Edward Cornwallis' Troubled History:
    The 18th century Nova Scotia governor and his campaign to exterminate the Mi'kmaq tribe.
Compensation for Residential School Survivors * Shubenacadie Indian Residential School:
    Out of the Depths * Aboriginal Healing Foundation * Indian Residential Schools:
    Institutional Child Abuse in Canada * Aboriginal Peoples and Residential Schools:
    History of Shubenacadie and other Indian boarding schools of Canada, and the abuses Indian children suffered there.
Glooscap Returns: Rebirth of the Mi'kmaq Nation:
    History of Mi'kmaq treaty rights in Canada.
Maritimes Treaties * Treaty of 1752:
    18th-century treaties between the English and the Abenaki, Penobscot, and Mi'kmaq tribes.
Mi'kmaq Resource Centre:
    Information about the Mi'kmaq Resource Centre's repository of Mi'kmaq documents.
Personal Histories of Mi'kmaq People * True Stories of the Mikmaq Indians:
    Oral histories of several Mi'kmaq elders, in English.
History of the Newfoundland Mi'kmaq People:
    Archaelogical and contemporary information about Micmac history in Newfoundland.
Mi'kmaq Chiefs of Newfoundland:
    History of the leadership of the Newfoundland Micmac Nation.
Micmac Native Traditions:
    History of the Micmacs on Prince Edward Island.
Ancestral Tribal Histories Of The Abenaki, Mikmak, and Nipissing Peoples:
    Article on Micmac history from ancient times until 1990.
A Biography of Anna Mae * Anna Mae Pictou Aquash * Murder of Anna Mae Aquash:
    Russell Means Points Finger * Who Killed Anna Mae? * Anna Mae Justice Awareness Fund:
    Indigenous Women for Justice * Life and Death of Anna Mae Acquash:
    Sites about Mi'kmaq activist Anna Mae Aquash's life and death.
Margaret Labillois:
    Biography of the Mi'kmaq elder, the first female Chief in New Brunswick.
Fort Folly History * Waycobah History * Conne River History * History of the Miramichi:
    Histories of individual Mi'kmaq First Nations.
Mi'kmaq and Acadian Good Relations:
    History of the alliance between the Mi'kmaq tribe and the French Acadians.
Four Directions: Mick Mack:
    Timeline and links about Micmac history.

Mi'kmaq Genealogy

Mi'kmaq Holdings Resource Guide:
    Micmac genealogy records and tips.
Genealogy Documents On-Line:
    Mi'kmaq and other Wabanaki census rolls and genealogical resources.
Maliseet & Micmac Vital Statistics:
    Database of demographics from New Brunswick parish registers.
Acadian Genealogy and History:
    Website on Acadian, Mi'kmaq, and French Canadian genealogy.
Mi'kmaq Surnames:
    List of Mikmaq Indian family names.
Maine Native American Genealogy:
    Information, links, and messageboards for Micmacs and other Maine Indians.
Native American Nations: Mi'kmaq:
    Message board for people of Mi'kmaq descent.
    Personal family genealogy of Mi'kmaq descendant Tuma Young.
The Mattie Mitchell Webpage:
    Descendants of Newfoundland Micmac man Mattie Mitchell.
Knockwood (Nocoute) Family:
    Genealogy record of this prominent Mi'kmaq family.
Bonnevie Family Tree:
    Genealogy of a Micmac descendent.
Native American Genealogy:
    Direction for people trying to trace Micmac and other American Indian ancestors.

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Additional Resources, Links, and References
   An online directory of Mikmaq resources, businesses, and news.
   Migmaq * Mi'kmaq Native Americans * Mi'kmaq Resources * Mi'kmaq:
   Micmac link pages.
   Mikmaq * Micmac Indians * Native Groups: Micmacs * Micmac Indians:
   Encyclopedia entries about the Micmacs.
   Les Micmacs * Micmacs du Québec * Les Micmacs * Profil des micmacs:
    Information about the Micmac people in French.
   Pueblo Micmac * Los Micmac:
   Information about the Micmac tribe in Spanish.

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