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Animate and Inanimate Nouns In Shawnee
On our Shawnee colors worksheet, you can see that some adjectives
have two or three different forms in Shawnee--for example, "red" is translated as mškwa in Shawnee, but the red rock is mškwawi,
and the red bird is mškwaawiθi.
That's because there is a distinction in Shawnee between animate and inanimate nouns.
If you're familiar with a European language like Spanish or French, nouns in those languages are divided by gender. In those European languages, adjectives describing
masculine and feminine nouns have different endings. So if you want to use the word "old" to
describe a man in Spanish, you say viejo, but if you want to describe a woman, you say vieja.
For men and women, this is easy to remember, but for other nouns, you just have to remember their grammatical gender. In
Algonkian languages like
Shawnee, you use the same adjective and verb forms
regardless of whether the subject is male or female. Instead, there are different word forms depending on whether the subject is animate or inanimate. All people and animals
are considered animate in Shawnee, but for other nouns, you just have to remember whether they are animate or not--you probably wouldn't be able to guess that "feather" is
animate and "river" is inanimate in Shawnee any more than you would be able to guess that "feather" is feminine and "river" is masculine in Spanish.
(the rock is white)
(the bird is white)
(the rocks are white)
(the birds are white)
(the rock is red)
(the bird is red)
(the rocks are red)
(the birds are red)
The third form that is written above the pictures--which doesn't exist for all the colors--is a prefix form.
So instead of saying wiškiloθa wakanakiθi you could also say waapa-wiškiloθa,
white bird. That prefix is the same for both animate and inanimate nouns.
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