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Apurina Indian Language (Apurinã)
Language: Apurina is an Arawakan language of South America, spoken by about
1000 people in Western Brazil. Apurina is a polysynthetic
language with complex verbs, notable for using the rare OSV word order.
Names: Apurina is the name given to them by a neighboring tribe, the Jamamadi. Though they commonly use it today,
in their own language they call themselves Popengare,
which means "our folk" or "our community."
They are also sometimes known by the name Kaxiriri
(originally the name of an Apurina village) or Kangutu
(originally the common Apurina word for "person," which has more recently come to mean "Indian.")
Spelling variants of these names include
Apurinã, Apuriná, Ipurina, Ipuriná, Ipurinã, Ipurinãn, Ipurinan, Hypurina, Hipurina, Ipureiná, Ipuryna, Ypurina, Apurinña, Jupurina;
Popingaré, Popĩkari, Popunkare, Popũkare, Ponpukare, Pupỹkary, Popũkare;
Kankite, Kangite, Kãkyty, Kankutu, Kankiti, Kangiti, Kankete, Kãkite, Cangiti, Cangiti, Canguite, and Cacharary.
Our list of vocabulary words in the Apurina language, with comparison to words in other Arawakan languages.
Apurina Animal Words:
Picture glossary of animal words in the Apurina language.
Worksheet showing color words in the Apurina language.
Apurina Language Resources
Languages of Brazil:
Map showing where in South America the Apurina language is spoken.
Profile of the Apurina language including phonology, orthography and a text.
Encyclopedia article on the Apurina language.
House of Languages: Apuriná
Information about Apuriná language usage.
La Lengua Apuriná:
Information on Apurina including a linguistic map of Brazil. Page in Spanish.
Apuriná Language Tree:
Theories about Apurina's language relationships compiled by Linguist List.
Apurinã Language Structures:
Apurinã linguistic profile and academic bibliography.
The Apurinã Language and People:
A linguistics thesis on the Apurina language available online.
A Comparative Reconstruction of Proto-Purus:
Historical linguistics article on the relationships between the Piro-Apurinã branch of the Arawakan language family.
Archive of linguistics papers on Apurina, in English and Spanish.
The Bible in Apurina: Apurina Prayers:
Translations of the New Testament into the Apurina language.
Books for sale on the Apurinas
A grammar and a vocabulary of the Ipuriná language
Our organization earns a commission from any book bought through these links
Ipurina language book for sale online.
Languages of the Amazon
In-depth book about Apurina and dozens of other Amazonian Indian languages.
Comparative Arawakan Histories
Interesting book about the history and culture of the Apurina and other Arawak speaking tribes.
Native American Indian Books:
Evolving list of books about Native Americans in general.
The Apurinã of Brazil:
Information about the Apurinas from a Brazilian indigenous organization.
Amazon Protectors Indigenous People and the Amazon Fires Forest People Fight Against Climate Catastrophe:
Articles about the Apurina struggle for self-determination and preservation of the rainforest.
Tamoio Movement of Original Peoples:
News article about an organization defending the rights of Apurina, Pataxó, and other indigenous people of Brazil.
Oral history from Apurina elders. Page in Portuguese.
Apurinã Story of Tsuna:
The Apurina creation myth.
Awiri: Encounters with the Unseen Guide to Shamanic Snuff: Rapé Sacred Snuff:
Information about the traditional Apurina herbal medicine awiry (commonly known as rapé or hape.)
Dança indigena Apurinã de Areias:
Video of an Apurina folk dance.
Links, References, and Additional Information
Endangered Languages Project: Apurina:
Bibliography of Apurina language resources.
Reference list of Apurina language materials.
Wikipedia: Apurinã people:
Encyclopedia articles about the Apurinas.
Native Brazilian People:
Information and links on indigenous culture in Brazil.
Os Apurinã: Tribo Popũkare/Apurinã:
Information about the Apurina Indians in Portuguese.
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