Native American languages
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Native Languages of the Americas: Chippewa
(Ojibway, Anishinaabe, Ojibwa)
Language:: The Ojibwe language--otherwise anglicized as
Chippewa, Ojibwa or Ojibway and known to its own speakers as Anishinabe or Anishinaabemowin--is an
tongue spoken by 50,000 people in the northern United States and southern Canada. There are five main dialects of Ojibwe: Western Ojibwe,
Eastern Ojibwe, Northern Ojibwe (Severn Ojibwe or Oji-Cree), Southern Ojibwe (Minnesota Ojibwe or Chippewa), and Ottawa (Odawa or Odaawa). The
Ottawa have always been politically independent from the Ojibwe, but their language is essentially
the same--speakers of all five dialects, including Ottawa, can understand each other readily. Many linguists also consider the
Algonquin language to be an Ojibwe dialect, but it has diverged more and is difficult for
Western Ojibwe speakers to understand. As its name suggests, Oji-Cree has borrowed many elements from Cree
and is often written in the Cree syllabary rather than the English alphabet. On the whole Ojibwe is among the
heartiest of North American languages, with many children being raised to speak it as a native language.
People: Along with the Cree, the Ojibwe are one of
the most populous and widely distributed Indian groups in North America, with 150 Ojibwe bands throughout the north-central United States
and southern Canada. Ojibwe and Chippewa are renderings of the same Algonquian word, "puckering," probably referring to their
characteristic moccasin style. "Chippewa" is more commonly used in the United States and "Ojibway" or "Ojibwe" in Canada, but the
Ojibwe people themselves use their native word Anishinabe (plural: Anishinabeg), meaning "original people." The Saulteaux and
Mississauga are subtribes of the Ojibwe; the Ottawa, though they are closely related
and speak the same language, have long held the status of a distinct tribe. Today there are 200,000 Ojibwe Indians living throughout their
History: The Ojibwe and Ottawa Indians are members of a longstanding alliance also
including the Potawatomi tribe. Called the Council of Three Fires, this
alliance was a powerful one which clashed with the mighty Iroquois
Confederacy and the Sioux, eventually getting the better of both.
The Ojibwe people were less devastated by European epidemics than their densely-populated Algonquian cousins
to the east, and they resisted manhandling by the whites much better. Most of their lands were appropriated by the Americans and Canadians,
a fate shared by all native peoples of North America, but plans to deport the Ojibwe to Kansas and Oklahoma never succeeded, and today nearly
all Ojibwe reservations are within their original territory.
Ojibwe Language Resources
Chippewa/Ojibway language samples, articles, and indexed links.
Chippewa/Ojibway Culture and History Directory
Related links about the Chippewa/Ojibway people and their way of life.
Chippewa Indians Fact Sheet
Our answers to frequently asked questions about the Chippewas/Ojibways, their language and culture.
As a complement to our Ojibwe language information, we would like to share our collection of indexed links
about the Ojibwe people and various aspects of their society. The emphasis
of these pages is on American Indians as a living people with a present and future as well as a past. Ojibway history is
interesting and important, but the Ojibway are still here today, too, and we try to feature modern writers as
well as traditional folklore, contemporary artwork as well as archaeology exhibits, and the issues and struggles of
today as well as the tragedies of yesterday. Suggestions for new links are always
Our Chippewa Websites
Information and language learning materials from the Ojibwe Indian language.
Chippewa Facts for Kids:
Questions and answers about Chippewa culture.
Collection of Chippewa Indian legends and folktales.
Chippewa Tribal and Community Links
Official homepages of individual Ojibwe tribes, bands, and nations, with information about tribal leadership, services, and events:
Walpole Island First Nation of Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi
The Sault Ste. Marie (Soo) Tribe of Chippewa
Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe
Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (L'Anse Reservation)
Aamjiwnaang First Nation (Chippewas of Sarnia)
Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation
Michipicoten First Nation
Wikwemikong (Wiky) Unceded Indian Reservation
Curve Lake First Nation (Mississauga Ojibway)
Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Mount Pleasant
Alderville First Nation
Red Lake Nation
Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe
Bay Mills Indian Community
Mississaugas of New Credit First Nation
Bois Forte Band of Chippewa
Ojibways of Onigaming
Ketegaunseebee Garden River First Nation
Lac Seul First Nation
Sandy Lake Band of Ojibwe
Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa
M'Chigeeng First Nation
Sokaogon Chippewa Community
Coalition of Ojibwe and other Ontario First Nations.
Nishnawbe Aski Nation:
Coalition of 45 Cree and Ojibway bands in Ontario.
Coalition of 47 Ojibwe and Cree First Nations of Ontario.
Dakota Ojibway Tribal Council:
Coalition of eight Dakota and Ojibway nations of Manitoba.
Great Lakes Intertribal Council:
Coalition of 12 Ojibwe and other Indian tribes of Wisconsin and Upper Michigan.
Montana-Wyoming Tribal Leaders Council:
Coalition of native nations in Montana and Wyoming, including the Chippewa Cree.
Ojibway and Cree Cultural Centre:
Ontario organization promoting the Ojibway and Cree cultures, languages, and traditions.
Ojibwe Cultural Preservation Organization:
Organization working to maintain Ojibway traditions and language.
Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre:
Dedicated to the Cree, Dene,
Dakota, Assiniboine, and Ojibwe cultures.
Turtle Mountain Chippewa Indian Heritage Center:
North Dakota Chippewa museum and cultural center.
Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission:
Collaborative effort by US Chippewa tribes to manage wildlife resources.
Red Lake Net News:
Online news and information service for the people of the Red Lake Indian Reservation.
The Ojibwe of Wisconsin, their culture, history, politics, and treaty rights.
Community Access Program of the Mississauga Ojibwe:
Program to provide Ojibwe people with internet service and other technological assistance.
Grand Casino Mille Lacs Black Bear Ojibwa Casino:
Homepages of Ojibwe casinos.
Paul Dearhouse Coleen Jackson LeBlang Angela Sangrey Williams:
Personal pages of Ojibwe individuals.
Maps of Chippewa Lands
Map of traditional Ojibwe territories, with placenames labeled in the Ojibwe language.
Minnesota Indian Map Wisconsin Indian Map Michigan Indian Maps North Dakota Indian Maps:
Tribal maps showing the original territory of the Ojibwe Indians and their neighbors.
Virtual Museum of New France: Northern Algonquians:
Historical maps and articles about the Ojibwe, Montagnais,
Micmac, and other northeastern tribes.
Chippewa Lifestyle and Tradition
Cultural and historical introduction to the Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibwe people of Michigan state.
Extensive profiles of the Dakota and Ojibway tribes of Minnesota, including culture, history, and addresses.
Ojibway Customs Ojibwe Culture Anishinabe (Ojibwe) Ojibway Culture:
Ojibwa Society: Ojibwa Culture Saulteaux Culture:
Overviews of the Ojibwa Indians, their lives and culture.
History of the Ojibwa tribe in Canada.
Quebec History: Chippewa Indians:
Anthropology text on the Ojibwe tribe.
Eastern Ojibwa and Ottawa Plains Ojibwa Northern Ojibwa and Saulteaux:
Ethnography of the Canadian Ojibwa tribes.
Interviews with Saulteaux Ojibway and other Saskatchewan Indian elders.
Spirit of White Earth:
Interview with a White Earth Ojibwe woman about the hardships of her people and herself.
Hero's Voice/Dreams of Looking Up Illustrated History of the Nawash Chippewas:
Educational comic books exploring the history and traditions of the Ojibwe people.
Digital archive of Ojibwe oral history, images, and documents.
Great Lakes Clothing Sketches Indian Clothes Headdress Indian Hair Chippewa Costume Ojibwa Regalia Ojibwa Garters:
Ojibwa Garter Pendants Ojibway Leggings Women's Leggings Ojibwa Shirt Shirt Dress Shirt:
Traditional Ojibway clothing.
Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage: Anishnaabe: Plains Ojibwa/Saulteaux:
Online exhibit of Ojibwa artifacts from the Canadian Museum of Civilization.
Ojibwa musical instruments.
Ojibwa Knife and Sheath:
Northern Ojibwa quilled and beaded knife sheath.
Chippewa Hoop Game Little Pines Ojibwa Puzzle Club & Ball Ring & Pin Ojibwa Lacrosse Ball:
Ojibwa and Ottawa games and toys.
American Indian Lacrosse:
History of Ojibway and other Indian lacrosse.
Overview of the Ojibway clan system.
Wild Rice Moon:
Ojibwe wild rice cultivation.
Native Women Honoured for Human Rights Fight Famous Women: Sandra Lovelace Human Rights Committee Decision:
The successful fight of Ojibwe and other Canadian Indian women to regain their official status.
Minnesota Chippewa Tribe Sault Ste. Marie Chippewas Leech Lake Chippewa Band Bay Mills Ojibwe Band:
Bay Mills Indian Community Red Lake Ojibwe Red Lake Flag Eabemetoong Flag Peguis First Nation:
Flags and symbols of various Ojibwe tribes, bands, nations, and political entities.
Wild Rice Soup Recipe Ojibway Style Indian Tacos Ojibwe Mountain Soup Wild Rice Casserole:
Ojibway Butterbean Soup Wild Rice Deluxe Ojibwe Frybread Ojibwe Berry Soup:
Traditional Chippewa recipes.
Fond Du Lac Tribal and Community College:
Tribal Chippewa college of Minnesota.
Anishinabek Nation License Plate Lac du Flambeau Ojibwa Plate White Earth Chippewa Plate Bay Mills Chippewa Plate:
Red Cliff Band License Plate Bad River Chippewa Plate Bois Forte Chippewa Plate Turtle Mountain Chippewa Plate:
Fon du Lac Chippewa License Plate Grand Portage Chippewa Plate Keweenaw Bay Ojibwa Plate:
Red Lake Chippewa License Plate Red Lake Bear Clan Red Lake Bullhead Clan Red Lake Eagle Clan:
Red Lake Mink Clan Red Lake Kingfisher Clan Red Lake Otter Clan Red Lake Pine Marten Clan:
Red Lake Turtle Clan Leech Lake Chippewa Plate Mille Lac Chippewa License Plate:
Ojibwe license plates in the US and Canada. (Notice that the Red Lake tribe issues license plates with the silhouette of your family's clan
animal on it! More tribes should do this.)
Ojibway News Ojibwe Akiing/Ojibway Turf:
Ojibwe news magazines.
Dennis Banks Homepage His AIM is True Dennis J. Banks Dennis Banks: Native American Activist:
Dennis Banks, Leech Lake Chippewa and co-founder of AIM.
The Case of Leonard Peltier Leonard Peltier: Political Prisoner Caged Warrior: Interview with Peltier:
Leonard Peltier and AIM Leonard Peltier: Shackled Eagle Prison Writings: My Life Is My Sun Dance:
In the Spirit of Crazy Horse Trial of Leonard Peltier Incident at Oglala: The Leonard Peltier Story:
Ojibwe/Lakota activist and political prisoner Leonard Peltier.
Winona LaDuke Native American Authors: Winona LaDuke Indigenous Mind We Are Still Here:
All Our Relations Last Standing Woman The Winona LaDuke Reader:
White Earth Ojibwe and Green Party activist Winona LaDuke.
Ojibwe Religion and Myth
Native American Beliefs:
Advice for people researching traditional Ojibwe religion and other American Indian spirituality.
Wisconsin Indian Religious and Ceremonial Life:
Articles on traditional Menominee and Ojibwa religion.
Midewiwin: Mide': The Midewiwin Society: Midewiwin: Secret Ojibwa Medicine Society:
Websites about the Mide'wiwin or Grand Medicine Society of the Anishinabe people.
Ojibway Medicine Wheel: Teachings of the Medicine Wheel:
Articles on the Ojibwe medicine wheel and its symbolism.
Collection of Chippewa Indian legends and folktales.
Chippewa Tribe Authors Storytellers: Anishnaabe/Chippewa/Ojibway Ojibwe Authors:
Anishinabe Authors Anishinabe Tribe Anishnabay Authors Anishinaabe Poetry and Prose:
Various Ojibwe writers.
Louise Erdrich Homepage Louise Erdrich Louise Erdrich Native American Authors: Louise Erdrich:
Louise Erdrich Love Medicine Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse:
Original Fire Baptism of Desire The Blue Jay's Dance: A Birth Year The Birchbark House:
Tracks The Beet Queen The Bingo Palace Tales of Burning Love The Antelope Wife:
Turtle Mountain Chippewa poet/novelist Louise Erdrich.
Kimberly Blaeser Native American Authors: Kimberly Blaeser Kim Blaeser:
Absentee Indians and Other Poems
Trailing You Gerald Vizenor: Writing in Oral Tradition:
White Earth Ojibwe poet Kimberly Blaeser.
Exploding Chippewas The Feathered Heart Being on the Moon On the Good Red Interstate:
Songs for Discharming Fishing for Myth A Snake in Her Mouth Storm Dancer My Sweet Maize:
More Ojibwe poetry.
David Treuer The Hiawatha Little:
Leech Lake Ojibwe novelist David Treuer.
Jim Northrup Native American Authors: Jim Northrup Walking the Rez Road Rez Road Follies:
Fond du Lac Ojibwe writer Jim Northrup.
Native American Authors: Donald Two-Rivers Briefcase Warriors Survivor's Medicine:
Fond du Lac Ojibwe writer E. Donald Two-Rivers.
Basil Johnston Indian School Days Moose Meat and Wild Rice Crazy Dave:
The Manitous: Spiritual World of the Ojibways Ojibway Ceremony Tales the Elders Told:
Mermaids and Medicine Women: Native Myths and Legends Ojibway Heritage Ojibway Tales:
The Star-Man and Other Tales Tales of the Anishinaubaek The Bear-Walker Dancing with a Ghost:
Parry Island Ojibway writer Basil Johnston.
Drew Hayden Taylor Drew Hayden Taylor Only Drunks and Children Tell the Truth The Baby Blues:
Boot legger Blues Buz'Gem Blues Observations of a Blue-Eyed Ojibway:
Curve Lake Ojibwe playwright/essayist Drew Hayden Taylor.
Gerald Vizenor Gerald Vizenor The Heirs of Columbus Postindian Conversations Fugitive Poses:
Dead Voices Interior Landscapes Manifest Manners Gerald Vizenor: Writing in Oral Tradition:
White Earth Chippewa postmodernist writer Gerald Vizenor.
Last Standing Woman:
A novel by Ojibwe activist Winona LaDuke.
Ojibwe Art and Music
Beads and Beadwork:
Ojibwe and other native bead work.
Arthur Bradford Shilling Arthur Shilling Gallery Arthur Shilling The Ojibway Dream:
Ojibway artist Arthur Shilling.
Norval Morrisseau and Medicine Painting Norval Morrisseau:
Ojibwe artist Norval Morrisseau.
Randy Chiblow Robert Joseph Henry:
Online galleries by urban Ojibwe artists.
Whetung Ojibwa Art and Crafts Gallery:
Curve Lake Ojibwa arts and crafts, clothing, and blankets..
Blog of Ojibway artist Eric C. Keast/Hoka-shay-honaqut, with photographs of his sculptures and ongoing work.
Website of a Chippewa artist, with photographs of his paintings and drawings.
River of Song:
Essay about Ojibway and other native music.
Keith Secola Wild Band of Indians Fingermonkey Circle:
Ojibwe musician Keith Secola.
Billy Joe Green My Ojibway Experience:
Ojibway blues guitarist Billy Joe Green.
Eddie Benton Benai:
Music by Ojibwe artist Eddie Benai.
Ojibway Music from Minnesota:
Collection of voice and drum music.
Information about powwows and dances from the Waywayseecappo First Nation.
American Indian Art:
Information, pictures and links about Ojibway and other native art.
Introduction to Ojibway Culture and History Chippewa History Ojibwe History:
History of the Anishinabeg Ojibway History Text Chippewa Indians:
Overviews of Chippewa Indian history.
Ojibwe Treaties Chippewa Treaty:
Ojibwe treaties online, with maps of the tribal areas discussed.
Biography of the 19th century Minnesota Ojibwe leader.
Ojibwe memorial to the 1850 removal tragedy.
History of Strawberry Island:
Sacred Ojibwe burial site in Wisconsin and efforts to preserve it from development.
Aboriginal Healing Foundation Indian Residential Schools Institutional Child Abuse in Canada:
Aboriginal Peoples and Residential Schools Indian School Days Boarding School Seasons:
History of the Indian boarding schools of Canada, and abuses Ojibwa and other Indian children suffered there.
Sault Ste. Marie (Soo) Chippewas Mille Lacs Ojibway History Red Lake Ojibwe History:
Alderville Ojibwa History History of Mnjikaning Sandy Lake Band of Ojibwe:
Histories of individual Ojibwe tribes.
History of the Three Fires Confederacy (Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi).
Walpole Island Genealogy Research:
Genealogical database of Ojibwe and other First Nations people of Walpole Island.
Online lookup of Chippewa and other Indian records through the Archives genealogy service.
People of the Three Fires Genealogy:
Genealogy resource for Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi descendants.
1937 BIA residency list from L'Anse reservation.
Grand Traverse Durant Index:
List of Ottawas and Chippewas from the 1907 Durant roll.
Chippewa-Ojibwe Genealogy Forum:
Messageboard for Chippewa Indian descendants.
Three Fires Genealogy Nishnawbe Geneology List:
Mailing lists for those researching Ojibwa genealogy.
Personal family history of a Chippewa woman.
Native American Genealogy:
Direction for those seeking Ojibway and other American Indian ancestors.
Concise Minnesota Ojibwe Dictionary Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary Historic Ojibway Dictionary:
Living Our Language: Ojibwe Tales and Oral Histories Portage Lake: Memories of an Ojibwe Childhood:
Emma Minwaah Mtigooh The Dog's Children: Anishinaabe Texts:
Stories printed in Ojibwe with facing English translation.
Nishnaabemwin Reference Grammar Severn Ojibwe Communicative Practices Walpole Island Ojibway:
You're So Fat!:
More books on the Ojibwe language.
Chippewa Families Chippewa Child Life RedLake Nation A Northern Land:
Modern social studies of the US Chippewas.
Chippewa Customs History of the Ojibway People Kitchi-Gami The Ojibwa Woman:
The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation
Late 19th/early 20th century ethnographies of the Ojibwe.
We Look in All Directions A Face in the Rock We Have the Right to Exist:
Ojibway and American history from the Ojibway perspective.
People of the Three Fires:
History of the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi in Michigan.
To Be the Main Leaders of Our People Ojibway Chiefs:
Ojibwe political history.
Chiefs Hole-in-the-Day of the Mississippi Chippewa:
Biography of the Ojibwe father and son chiefs.
The Walleye War Mille Lacs Ojibwe Hunting and Fishing Rights The Battle for Chippewa Treaty Rights:
The New Resource Wars Siege at Ojibwa:
Books on Ojibwe treaty and land rights.
A Poison Stronger Than Love:
The devastating effects of alcohol on an Ojibwe community.
Indian School Days Boarding School Seasons:
Books about Ojibwe experiences at residential school.
Dennis Banks: Native American Activist:
Biography of the AIM leader.
Prison Writings In the Spirit of Crazy Horse Trial of Leonard Peltier Incident at Oglala:
Books and a movie about Ojibwe/Sioux activist and political prisoner Leonard Peltier.
Heart of the Rock:
Memoir of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz by Ojibwa activist Adam Fortunate Eagle.
White Earth Tragedy:
Ethnicity and dispossession at a Minnesota Anishinaabe reservation.
Poetry and Prose by Four Anishinaabe Writers Summer in the Spring:
Ojibwe literature collections.
Love Medicine Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse The Blue Jay's Dance: A Birth Year:
Tracks The Beet Queen The Bingo Palace Tales of Burning Love The Antelope Wife:
Novels and stories by Turtle Mountain Chippewa poet/novelist Louise Erdrich.
Original Fire Baptism of Desire Absentee Indians Trailing You The Feathered Heart:
Exploding Chippewas Being on the Moon A Snake in Her Mouth On the Good Red Interstate:
Fishing for Myth Songs for Discharming Storm Dancer Sweetgrass II My Sweet Maize:
Books of poetry from Ojibwe authors.
The Hiawatha Little:
Novels by Leech Lake Ojibwe writer David Treuer.
Briefcase Warriors Only Drunks and Children Tell the Truth The Baby Blues:
Bootlegger Blues Buz'Gem Blues:
Plays by Ojibwe playwrights.
Walking the Rez Road Rez Road Follies Survivor's Medicine Moose Meat and Wild Rice:
Everlasting Sky Observations of a Blue-Eyed Ojibway:
Stories and essays by Ojibwe authors.
The Heirs of Columbus Postindian Conversations Fugitive Poses Dead Voices Interior Landscapes:
Manifest Manners Gerald Vizenor: Writing in Oral Tradition:
"Indian deconstruction" by postmodernist Ojibwe Gerald Vizenor.
Moose to Moccasins Red World and White Ojibway Life: George Copway Night Flying Woman:
Crazy Dave Not First In Nobody's Heart:
Biographies by Ojibway Indians.
Women of White Earth Spirit of the Ojibwa:
Interviews with Ojibway Indians.
The Manitous: Spiritual World of the Ojibways Ojibway Ceremonies Tales the Elders Told:
Mermaids and Medicine Women: Native Myths and Legends Ojibway Heritage Ojibway Tales:
The Star Man and Other Tales Tales of the Anishinaubaek The Bear Walker Dancing with a Ghost:
Books on Ojibway mythology, folklore and spirituality by Parry Island Ojibway Basil Johnston.
Mermaids and Medicine Women:
Ojibwe folktales about mythological female spirits, told by a Native author.
Murdo's Story Grandmother Stories Mishomish Book When Beaver Was Very Great:
Wisconsin Chippewa Myths & Tales Greenmantle:
More books of Ojibwe legends.
The Ojibway Dream:
Art book by Ojibway artist Arthur Shilling.
Dreamcatcher Powwow Summer Jingle Dancer Shingebiss: An Ojibwe Legend:
Picture books for young children about Ojibwe life.
The Birchbark House The Good Path Eagle Feather Songs of Our Ancestors:
Shannon, Ojibway Dancer Honour the Sun Chuck in the City Just a Walk Little Voice:
Silent Words The Loon Feather The Sacred Harvest:
Kids' books by Ojibway authors.
Ininatig's Gift of Sugar:
Picture book following an Anishinabe elder in the traditional harvest of maple sugar.
Wild Rice and the Ojibway People:
The spiritual and practical importance of wild rice cultivation.
Strength of the Earth: The Classic Guide to Ojibwe Uses of Native Plants:
Book of Ojibwe traditions regarding woodland and prairie plants.
Orders of the Dreamed:
Cree and Northern Ojibwa religion and myth.
The Place of the Pike:
History of the Bay Mills Ojibwe.
Handbook of North American Indians: Plains Indians:
Extensive ethnography of the Plains Ojibway and their neighbors.
American Indian Books:
Evolving list of books about Native Americans in general.
Links, References, and Additional Information
Chippewa Ojibwa Ojibwa Native Groups: Chippewas:
Encyclopedia articles about the Ojibwe Indians.
Les Amérindiens Anishinaabe du Canada:
Information about the Anishinaabe First Nations in French.
Los Ojibwa o Chippewa Los Saulteaux:
Information about the Chippewa Indians in Spanish.
Ojibwe links pages.
Link page for Ojibwe and other Algonquian Indians.
Chippewas Ojibwa Tribe Chippewa:
Chippewa Indian books.
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