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Native Americans: Chippewa Tribe (Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwa)

Language: The Ojibwe language--otherwise anglicized as Chippewa, Ojibwa or Ojibway and known to its own speakers as Anishinabe or Anishinaabemowin--is an Algonquian tongue spoken by 50,000 people in the northern United States and southern Canada. There are five main dialects of Ojibwe: Western Ojibwe, Eastern Ojibwe, Northern Ojibwe (Severn Ojibwe or Oji-Cree), Southern Ojibwe (Minnesota Ojibwe or Chippewa), and Ottawa (Odawa or Odaawa). The Ottawa people have always been politically independent from the Ojibwe, but their language is essentially the same--speakers of all five dialects, including Ottawa, can understand each other readily. Many linguists also consider the Algonquin language to be an Ojibwe dialect, but it has diverged more and is difficult for Western Ojibwe speakers to understand. As its name suggests, Oji-Cree has borrowed many elements from Cree and is often written in the Cree syllabary rather than the English alphabet. On the whole Ojibwe is among the heartiest of North American languages, with many children being raised to speak it as a native language.

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People: Along with the Cree, the Ojibwe are one of the most populous and widely distributed Indian groups in North America, with 150 Ojibwe bands throughout the north-central United States and southern Canada. Ojibwe and Chippewa are renderings of the same Algonquian word, "puckering," probably referring to their characteristic moccasin style. "Chippewa" is more commonly used in the United States and "Ojibway" or "Ojibwe" in Canada, but the Ojibwe people themselves use their native word Anishinabe (plural: Anishinabeg), meaning "original people." The Saulteaux and Mississauga are subtribes of the Ojibwe; the Ottawa, though they are closely related and speak the same language, have long held the status of a distinct tribe. Today there are 200,000 Ojibwe Indians living throughout their traditional territories.

History: The Ojibwe and Ottawa Indians are members of a longstanding alliance also including the Potawatomi tribe. Called the Council of Three Fires, this alliance was a powerful one which clashed with the mighty Iroquois Confederacy and the Sioux, eventually getting the better of both. The Ojibwe people were less devastated by European epidemics than their densely-populated Algonquian cousins to the east, and they resisted manhandling by the whites much better. Most of their lands were appropriated by the Americans and Canadians, a fate shared by all native peoples of North America, but plans to deport the Ojibwe to Kansas and Oklahoma never succeeded, and today nearly all Ojibwe reservations are within their original territory.

Ojibwe Language Resources
Chippewa/Ojibway language samples, articles, and indexed links.

Chippewa/Ojibway Culture and History Directory
Related links about the Chippewa/Ojibway people and their way of life.

Chippewa Indians Fact Sheet
Our answers to frequently asked questions about the Chippewas/Ojibwas, their language and culture.

The Anishinabe Tribes
Information about the Ojibwe and other Anishinaabe peoples.

Chippewa Culture and History

As a complement to our Ojibwe language information, we would like to share our collection of indexed links about the Ojibwe people and various aspects of their society. The emphasis of these pages is on American Indians as a living people with a present and future as well as a past. Ojibway history is interesting and important, but the Ojibway are still here today, too, and we try to feature modern writers as well as traditional folklore, contemporary artwork as well as archaeology exhibits, and the issues and struggles of today as well as the tragedies of yesterday. Suggestions for new links are always welcome.

Our Chippewa Websites

Ojibwe Language:
    Pronunciation guide, grammar lessons, and language learning resources for the Ojibwe Indian language.
Chippewa Facts for Kids:
    Questions and answers about Chippewa culture.
Chippewa Legends:
    Collection of Chippewa Indian legends and folktales.

Chippewa Tribal and Community Websites

Official homepages of individual Ojibwe tribes, bands, and nations, with information about tribal leadership, services, and events:
Walpole Island First Nation of Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi
The Sault Ste. Marie (Soo) Tribe of Chippewa
Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe
White Earth Ojibwe
Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (L'Anse Reservation)
Aamjiwnaang First Nation (Chippewas of Sarnia)
Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation
Michipicoten First Nation
Wikwemikong (Wiky) Unceded Indian Reservation
Curve Lake First Nation (Mississauga Ojibway)
Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Mount Pleasant
Turtle Mountain Chippewa Band
Red Lake Nation
Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe
Bay Mills Indian Community
Mississaugas of New Credit First Nation
Bois Forte Band of Chippewa
Ojibways of Onigaming
Ketegaunseebee Garden River First Nation
Lac Seul First Nation
Sandy Lake Band of Ojibwe
Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa
M'Chigeeng First Nation
Sokaogon Chippewa Community

Nishnawbe Aski Nation: * Keewaytinook Okimakanak: * Anishinabek Nation:
    Intertribal coalitions of Ojibway, Algonquin, and Cree First Nations of Ontario.
Dakota Ojibway Tribal Council:
    Coalition of eight Dakota and Ojibway nations of Manitoba.
Great Lakes Intertribal Council:
    Coalition of 12 Ojibwe and other Indian tribes of Wisconsin and Upper Michigan.
Rocky Mountain Tribal Leaders Council:
    Coalition of native nations in Montana and Wyoming, including the Chippewa Cree.
Ojibway and Cree Cultural Centre:
    Ontario organization promoting the Ojibway and Cree cultures, languages, and traditions.
Ojibwe Cultural Preservation Organization:
    Organization working to maintain Ojibway traditions and language.
Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre:
    Dedicated to the Cree, Dene, Dakota, Assiniboine, and Ojibwe cultures.
First Nations Education Council:
    Organization dedicated to supporting indigenous schools and students in Quebec First Nations.
Turtle Mountain Chippewa Indian Heritage Center:
    North Dakota Chippewa museum and cultural center.
Fond Du Lac Tribal and Community College:
    Tribal Chippewa college of Minnesota.
Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe College:
    Ojibwe tribal college of Wisconsin.
Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission:
    Collaborative effort by US Chippewa tribes to manage wilderness and nature resources.
Red Lake Net News:
    Online news and information service for the people of the Red Lake Indian Reservation.
Wisconsin Ojibwe:
    The Ojibwe of Wisconsin, their culture, history, politics, and treaty rights.
Grand Casino Mille Lacs * Black Bear Ojibwa Casino:
    Homepages of Ojibwe casinos.
Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians * Chippewa Cree Tribe:
    Community profiles with demographic information on the Chippewa tribes of the Missouri River Basin.

Books for sale on the Chippewas
Our organization earns a commission from any book bought through these links

We Look in All Directions * A Face in the Rock * We Have the Right to Exist:
    Ojibway and American history from the Ojibway perspective.
Chippewa Families * Chippewa Child Life * Red Lake Nation * A Northern Land:
    Modern social studies of the US Chippewas.
Chippewa Customs * History of the Ojibway People * Kitchi-Gami * The Ojibwa Woman:
    Late 19th/early 20th century ethnographies of the Ojibwe.
To Be the Main Leaders of Our People * Ojibway Chiefs:
    Ojibwe political history.
The Walleye War * Mille Lacs Ojibwe Hunting and Fishing Rights * The Battle for Chippewa Treaty Rights:
    Books on Ojibwe treaty and land rights.
Chiefs Hole-in-the-Day of the Mississippi Chippewa:
    Biography of the Ojibwe father and son chiefs.
Concise Minnesota Ojibwe Dictionary * Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary * Historic Ojibway Dictionary:
    Ojibwe dictionaries.
Living Our Language * Portage Lake: Memories of an Ojibwe Childhood * Emma Minwaah Mtigooh * Anishinaabe Texts:
    Stories printed in the Ojibwe language with facing English translation.
You're So Fat!:
    Interesting book about Ojibwe sociolinguistics.
Indian School Days * Boarding School Seasons:
    Books about Ojibwe experiences in the forced residential school system.
A Poison Stronger Than Love:
    The devastating effects of alcohol on an Ojibwe community.
Dennis Banks: Native American Activist:
    Biography of the AIM leader.
Prison Writings * In the Spirit of Crazy Horse * Trial of Leonard Peltier * Incident at Oglala:
    Books and a movie about Ojibwe/Sioux activist and political prisoner Leonard Peltier.
Heart of the Rock:
    Memoir of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz by Ojibwa activist Adam Fortunate Eagle.
White Earth Tragedy:
    Ethnicity and dispossession at a Minnesota Anishinaabe reservation.
Moose to Moccasins * Red World and White * Ojibway Life: George Copway * Night Flying Woman:
    Biographies by Ojibway Indians.
Women of White Earth * Spirit of the Ojibwa:
    Interviews with Ojibway Indians.
Dancing with a Ghost:
    Interesting book on the Ojibway worldview and culture clashes with the dominant white society.
Tales of the Anishinaubaek * The Manitous: Spiritual World of the Ojibways * Mermaids and Medicine Women
    Grandmother Stories * Mishomish Book * Ojibway Ceremonies * Tales the Elders Told * Wisconsin Chippewa Myths & Tales:
    Books of Ojibwe legends.
The Ojibway Dream:
    Art book by Ojibway artist Arthur Shilling.
Dreamcatcher * Powwow Summer * Jingle Dancer * Shingebiss: An Ojibwe Legend:
    Picture books for young children about Ojibwe life.
Wild Rice and the Ojibway People:
    The spiritual and practical importance of wild rice cultivation.
Strength of the Earth: The Classic Guide to Ojibwe Uses of Native Plants:
    Book of Ojibwe traditions regarding woodland and prairie plants.
Orders of the Dreamed:
    Cree and Northern Ojibwa religion and myth.
The Place of the Pike:
    History of the Bay Mills Ojibwe.
Chippewa Native Literature:
    Poetry, novels, and short stories written by Ojibwe authors.
American Indian Books:
    Evolving list of books about Native Americans in general.

Maps of Chippewa Lands

Ojibwe Lands:
    Map of traditional Ojibwe territories, with placenames labeled in the Ojibwe language.
Minnesota Indian Map * Wisconsin Indian Map * Michigan Indian Maps * North Dakota Indian Maps:
    Tribal maps showing the original location of the Ojibwe Indians and their neighbors.
Virtual Museum of New France: Northern Algonquians:
    Historical maps and articles about the Ojibwe, Montagnais, Micmac, and other northeastern tribes.

Chippewa Lifestyle and Tradition

Michigan Tribes:
    Cultural and historical introduction to the Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibwe people of Michigan state.
Minnesota Reservations:
    Extensive profiles of the Dakota and Ojibway tribes of Minnesota, including culture, history, and addresses.
Ojibway Customs * Ojibwe Culture * Anishinabe (Ojibwe) * Ojibway Culture:
    Ojibwa Society: * Ojibwa Culture * Saulteaux Culture:
    Overviews of the Ojibwa Indians, their lives and culture.
    History of the Ojibwa tribe in Canada.
Quebec History: Chippewa Indians:
    Anthropology text on the Ojibwe tribe.
Saskatchewan Elders:
    Interviews with Saulteaux Ojibway and other Saskatchewan Indian elders.
Spirit of White Earth:
    Interview with a White Earth Ojibwe woman about the hardships of her people and herself.
Hero's Voice/Dreams of Looking Up * Illustrated History of the Nawash Chippewas:
    Educational comic books exploring the history and traditions of the Ojibwe people.
    Digital archive of Ojibwe oral history, images, and documents.
American Indian Lacrosse:
    History of Ojibway and other Indian lacrosse.
Ojibway Clans:
    Overview of the Ojibway clan system.
Wild Rice Moon:
    Ojibwe wild rice cultivation.
Native Women Honoured for Human Rights Fight * Famous Women: Sandra Lovelace * Human Rights Committee Decision:
    The successful fight of Ojibwe and other Canadian Indian women to regain their official status.
Minnesota Chippewa Tribe * Sault Ste. Marie Chippewas * Leech Lake Chippewa Band * Lake Nipigon Ojibways:
    Bay Mills Indian Community * White Earth Ojibwe * Red Lake Flag * Eabemetoong Flag * Peguis First Nation:
    Aamjiwnaang (Sarnia) Chippewas * Alderville First Nation: * Aroland First Nation: * Aundeck-Omni-Kaning:
    Beausoleil Ojibwe Flag: * Batchewana Nation Flag
    Flags and symbols of various Ojibwe tribes, bands, nations, and political entities.
Wild Rice Soup Recipe * Ojibway Style Indian Tacos * Ojibwe Mountain Soup * Wild Rice Casserole:
    Ojibway Butterbean Soup * Wild Rice Deluxe * Ojibwe Frybread * Ojibwe Berry Soup:
    Traditional Chippewa recipes.
Red Lake Chippewa License Plates: * Lac du Flambeau Ojibwa * White Earth Chippewa * Bay Mills Chippewa:
    Red Cliff Band * Bad River Chippewa * Bois Forte Chippewa * Turtle Mountain Chippewa: * Saginaw Chippewa:
    Fond du Lac Chippewa * Grand Portage Chippewa * Leech Lake Chippewa * Mille Lac Chippewa:
    Ojibwe license plates in the US and Canada. (Notice that the Red Lake tribe issues license plates with the silhouette of your family's clan
    animal on it! More tribes should do this.)

Ojibwe Artifacts and Cultural Objects

Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage: Plains Ojibwa/Saulteaux:
    Online exhibit of Ojibwa artifacts from the Canadian Museum of Civilization.
Great Lakes Clothing * Indian Clothes * Headdress * Indian Hair * Chippewa Costume * Ojibwa Regalia * Ojibwe Dress Shirt:
    Photos and drawings of traditional Ojibway clothing.
Wigwam Houses * Algonquian Weapons * Ojibwa Club * Native American Food:
    Algonquin and other Native American homes, food and tools.
Algonquian Bark Canoes:
    Ojibwa and other Indian canoes, with pictures showing the differences between canoe styles.
Ojibwa Bullroarer:
    Ojibwa musical instruments.
Ojibwa Knife and Sheath:
    Northern Ojibwa quilled and beaded knife sheath.
Chippewa Hoop Game * Little Pines * Ojibwa Games and String Puzzles:
    Ojibwa and Ottawa games and toys.

Ojibwe Religion and Myth

Native American Beliefs:
    Advice for people researching traditional Ojibwe religion and other American Indian spirituality.
Wisconsin Indian Religious and Ceremonial Life:
    Articles on traditional Menominee and Ojibwa religion.
Anishinabe Legends:
    Online collection of traditional Anishinaabe stories.
Sky Stories: Indigenous Astronomy:
    The role of celestial bodies in Anishinabe tradition.
Midewiwin: Mide': The Midewiwin Society: Meaning of Midewiwin:
    Websites about the Mide'wiwin or Grand Medicine Society of the Anishinabe people.
Ojibway Medicine Wheel: Teachings of the Medicine Wheel:
    Articles on the Ojibwe medicine wheel and its symbolism.
The Chippewa Widow:
    Chippewa death and mourning rituals.
Nanabozho: Animikii, the Ojibwe Thunderbird: Windigo:
    Articles on Ojibwe mythological figures.

Ojibwe Art, Music and Literature

Beads and Beadwork * Floral Motifs in Ojibwe Cultures:
    Artistry and spiritual significance of Ojibwe beadwork designs.
Arthur Bradford Shilling * Arthur Shilling Gallery * Arthur Shilling * The Ojibway Dream:
    Ojibway artist Arthur Shilling.
Norval Morrisseau and Medicine Painting * Norval Morrisseau:
    Ojibwe artist Norval Morrisseau.
Randy Chiblow * Robert Joseph Henry:
    Online galleries by urban Ojibwe artists.
Whetung Ojibwa Art and Crafts Gallery:
    Curve Lake Ojibwa arts and crafts, clothing, and blankets..
    Blog of Ojibway artist Eric C. Keast/Hoka-shay-honaqut, with photographs of his sculptures and ongoing work.
Richie Scharp:
    Website of a Chippewa artist, with photographs of his paintings and drawings.
    Information and pictures about the Ojibwe dream catcher tradition.
River of Song:
    Essay about Ojibway and other native music.
Keith Secola * Wild Band of Indians * Fingermonkey * Circle:
    Ojibwe musician Keith Secola.
Billy Joe Green * My Ojibway Experience:
    Ojibway blues guitarist Billy Joe Green.
Eddie Benton Benai:
    Music by Ojibwe artist Eddie Benai.
Ojibway Music from Minnesota:
    Collection of voice and drum music.
Pow Wow Dancing:
    Information about powwows and dances from the Waywayseecappo First Nation.
American Indian Art:
    Information, pictures and links about Ojibway and other native art.

Chippewa Literature
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Chippewa Tribe Authors * Storytellers: Anishnaabe/Chippewa/Ojibway * Ojibwe Authors:
    Anishinabe Authors * Anishinabe Tribe * Anishnabay Authors * Anishinaabe Poetry and Prose:
    Various Ojibwe writers.
Poetry and Prose by Four Anishinaabe Writers * Summer in the Spring:
    Ojibwe literature collections.
Louise Erdrich Homepage * Louise Erdrich * Louise Erdrich * Native American Authors: Louise Erdrich:
    Louise Erdrich * Love Medicine * Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse * Original Fire:
    The Painted Drum * The Blue Jay's Dance: A Birth Year * The Beet Queen * The Bingo Palace * The Antelope Wife:
    Turtle Mountain Chippewa poet and novelist Louise Erdrich.
Drew Hayden Taylor * Drew Hayden Taylor * Only Drunks and Children Tell the Truth * The Baby Blues:
    Boot legger Blues * Observations of a Blue-Eyed Ojibway:
    Curve Lake Ojibwe playwright/essayist Drew Hayden Taylor.
Gerald Vizenor * Gerald Vizenor * The Heirs of Columbus * Postindian Conversations * Writing in Oral Tradition:
    White Earth Chippewa postmodernist writer Gerald Vizenor.
David Treuer * The Hiawatha * Little:
    Leech Lake Ojibwe novelist David Treuer.
Jim Northrup * Native American Authors: Jim Northrup *Walking the Rez Road * Rez Road Follies:
    Fond du Lac Ojibwe writer Jim Northrup.
Native American Authors: Donald Two-Rivers * Briefcase Warriors * Survivor's Medicine:
    Fond du Lac Ojibwe writer E. Donald Two-Rivers.
Kimberly Blaeser * Native American Authors: Kimberly Blaeser * Kim Blaeser:
    Absentee Indians and Other Poems * Trailing You:
    White Earth Ojibwe poet Kimberly Blaeser.
The Feathered Heart * Exploding Chippewas * Being on the Moon:
    On the Good Red Interstate * Fishing for Myth * Songs for Discharming * Sweetgrass II:
    Books of poetry from more Ojibwe writers.
The Birchbark House *The Good Path *Eagle Feather * Ojibway Dancer * Little Voice * The Sacred Harvest:
    Kids' books by Ojibway authors.
Basil Johnston * Moose Meat and Wild Rice * Indian School Days * Ojibway Heritage:
    Parry Island Ojibway writer and historian Basil Johnston.
Last Standing Woman:
    A novel by Ojibwe activist Winona LaDuke.

Ojibwe Politics, Issues, and News

Ojibway News * Ojibwe Akiing/Ojibway Turf:
    Ojibwe news magazines.
Dennis Banks Homepage * His AIM is True * Dennis J. Banks * Dennis Banks: Native American Activist:
    Dennis Banks, Leech Lake Chippewa and co-founder of AIM.
The Case of Leonard Peltier * Leonard Peltier: Political Prisoner * Caged Warrior: Interview with Peltier:
    Leonard Peltier and AIM * Leonard Peltier: Shackled Eagle * Prison Writings: My Life Is My Sun Dance:
    In the Spirit of Crazy Horse * Trial of Leonard Peltier * Incident at Oglala: The Leonard Peltier Story:
    Ojibwe/Lakota activist and political prisoner Leonard Peltier.
Winona LaDuke * Native American Authors: Winona LaDuke *Indigenous Mind * We Are Still Here:
    All Our Relations * Last Standing Woman * The Winona LaDuke Reader:
    White Earth Ojibwe and Green Party activist Winona LaDuke.

Ojibwe History

Chippewa History * Introduction to Ojibway Culture and History * Ojibwe History:
    History of the Anishinabeg * Ojibway History Text * Ohio History: Chippewa Indians:
    Overviews of Chippewa Indian history.
Ojibwe Treaties * Chippewa Treaty:
    Ojibwe treaties online, with maps of the tribal areas discussed.
Chief Hole-In-The-Day:
    Biography of the 19th century Minnesota Ojibwe leader.
Caatousee: * Metakoosega, Ojibway Warrior: * Okeemakeequid, Chippeway Chief: * Shingaba W'Ossin:
    Wabishkeepenas: * Waemboeshkaa: * Weshcubb:
    Biographies of historical Ojibwe figures.
Sandy Lake:
    Ojibwe memorial to the 1850 removal tragedy.
History of Strawberry Island:
    Sacred Ojibwe burial site in Wisconsin and efforts to preserve it from development.
Aboriginal Healing Foundation * Indian Residential Schools * Institutional Child Abuse in Canada:
    Aboriginal Peoples and Residential Schools * Indian School Days * Boarding School Seasons:
    History of the Indian boarding schools of Canada, and abuses Ojibwa and other Indian children suffered there.
Sault Ste. Marie (Soo) Chippewas * Mille Lacs Ojibway History * Red Lake Ojibwe History:
    Alderville Ojibwa History * History of Mnjikaning * Sandy Lake Band of Ojibwe:
    Histories of individual Ojibwe tribes.
Wikwemikong's History:
    History of the Three Fires Confederacy (Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi).
Four Directions: Chippewa:
    Ojibwe timeline and links.

Chippewa Genealogy

Walpole Island Genealogy Research:
    Genealogical database of Ojibwe and other First Nations people of Walpole Island.
People of the Three Fires Genealogy:
    Genealogy resource for Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi descendants.
L'Anse Census:
    1937 BIA residency list from L'Anse reservation.
Grand Traverse Durant Index:
    List of Ottawas and Chippewas from the 1907 Durant roll.
Chippewa-Ojibwe Genealogy Forum: * Nishnawbe-Aski Geneology List:
    Messageboard for Chippewa Indian descendants.
Three Fires Genealogy * Nishnawbe Geneology List:
    Mailing lists for those researching Ojibwa genealogy.
    Personal family history of a Chippewa woman.
Native American Genealogy:
    Direction for those seeking Ojibway and other American Indian ancestors.

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Additional Resources, Links, and References

   Chippewa * Ojibwa * Ojibwa * Native Groups: Chippewas:
    Encyclopedia articles about the Ojibwe Indians.
  Les Am√©rindiens Anishinaabe du Canada:
  Information about the Anishinaabe First Nations in French.
   Pueblo Ojibwa o Chippewa * Los Anishinaabe * Los Saulteaux:
   Information about the Chippewa Indians in Spanish.
   NativeTech: Ojibwe:
   Ojibwe links pages.
   Neshnabek Links:
   Link page for Ojibwe and other Algonquian Indians.
   Ojibwe Resources * Chippewas * Chippewa/Ojibwe Resources:
   Ojibwe links.

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