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Verb-Final Languages

Some Native American languages are described as "verb-final." All this means is that sentences in such languages nearly always end with verbs. In English, sentences can end with verbs or not ("John sang" or "What did John kick?" versus "John sang a song" or "John kicked the ball hard.") In verb-final languages like Cherokee, the verb almost always follows the subject and the object, and is usually the last word in a sentence at all. Verb-final languages are common worldwide, but they are especially common among the languages of the Americas. Here is a partial list of verb-final Native American languages:

Abenaki Achuar Aguaruna Ahtna Aikana Akawaio Alabama Aleut Amahuaca Amarakaeri
Andoa Apache Apalachee Apinaye Apurina Arabela Araona Arikara Assiniboine Aymara
Babine Beaver Biloxi Bogota Bora Boruca Bribri Buglere Cabecar Cacua
Cahuilla Canamari Candoshi Canela Capanahua Cara Carib Carrier Cashibo Cashinahua
Catawba Cayapa Chacobo Chayahuita Chemehuevi Cherokee Chichimec Chickasaw Chilcotin Chimariko
Chipaya Chipewyan Chitimacha Chitonahua Choctaw Cholon Chontaquiro Clatskanie Coconuco Comanche
Crow Cuaiquer Cuna Cupeno Damana Degexitan Dogrib Embera Esselen Eyak
Galice Gros Ventre Guahibo Guambiano Guanano Guayabero Gwich'in Haida Han Hidatsa
Hitchiti Hochunk Holikachuk Hopi Huachipaeri Hualapai Huambisa Hupa Ika Inuktitut
Ioway Irantxe Isconahua Jabuti Jamamadi Jaqaru Jebero Jupda Kaingang Kamayura
Kansa Karipuna Kaska Katukina Kayabi Kaweskar Kaxarari Kayapo Kiliwa Kiowa
Kitanemuk Koasati Kogui Koyukon Kumeyaay Kunza Kuskokwim Lenca Maidu Mandan
Maquiritari Maricopa Marubo Mastanahua Matis Mattole Maxakali Mayoruna Mikasuki Mikmaq
Miskito Mojave Mono Moronahua Muinane Munduruku Muskogee Nadeb Nambikwara Natchez
Navajo Ngabere Nocaman Nukini Ocaina Omaha-Ponca Opata Osage Pacahuara Paez
Pai Paiute Panamint Panobo Pasto Pawnee Pech Pima Bajo Piraha Piro
Pisabo Pomo Poyanawa Quapaw Quechan Quechua Rama Remo Resigaro Retuara
Rikbaktsa Sanema Sarcee Sekani Sensi Seri Serrano Shaninawa Sharanahua Shasta
Shipibo Shoshone Shuar Sioux Siriano Slavey Stoney Sumu Takelma Tanacross
Tanaina Tanana Tarahumara Tariano Tatuyo Tehuelche Telembi Tewa Timucua Tiwa
Tlingit Tolowa Tol Tonkawa Totoro Trumai Tsafiki Tsetsaut Tucano Tunica
Tutchone Tutelo-Saponi Tututni Tuxinawa Tuyuca Umpqua Urubu Ute Uwa Vilela
Waica Wailaki Waorani Wappo Warao Wari Washo Waunana Wichita Witoto
Xavante Xiriana Xokleng Yaghan Yaminawa Yanomamo Yaqui Yawanawa Yine Yoranahua
Yuchi Yuki Yupik Zuni            

Further Reading

 Word Order Typology
 Wikipedia: Word order
 Basic Language Structures



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